India - Pakistan CBMs since 1947 A Critical Analysis

By Effendi, Maria Saifuddin; Choudhry, Ishtiaq Ahmad | South Asian Studies, January-June 2016 | Go to article overview

India - Pakistan CBMs since 1947 A Critical Analysis


Effendi, Maria Saifuddin, Choudhry, Ishtiaq Ahmad, South Asian Studies


Introduction

South Asia has a history of interstate and intrastate conflicts, troubled neighbourhood, internecine struggle and movements within the countries, peace deals, confrontational and cooperative environment and, in very recent past, the end of 30 years of guerilla war in Sri Lanka. At inter-state level, the region bears historic animosity between India and Pakistan. The central issue of their bilateral conflicts is Kashmir over which they fought three major wars (1948, 1965, and 1971) and several low intensity military confrontations (most importantly Siachen 1987 and Kargil in 1999) since 1947. Their overt nuclearization in 1998 had declared Kashmir as a nuclear flash point, which is termed by international community as a threat to regional and world peace.

Several measures were taken by India and Pakistan and momentarily built hopes for settlement of their differences, however none brought final resolution. The Composite Dialogue took place between India and Pakistan in 2004 - 08, brought higher hopes to the region in the initial phase. The dialogue continued for four years and brought some progress on issues such as resumption of communication links such as air and railways, talks on trade and investment, cultural exchange etc. Hence, with the tragedy at Mumbai on 26 November 2008 and Pakistan's alleged role, composite dialogue was discontinued for some time. The deadlock after Mumbai attack was unlocked with the proposal of Secretary Level talks by India to Pakistan in early 2010. It was also clearly stated by the Indian leadership that the proposal was just a diplomatic move, should not necessarily be termed as "resumption of composite dialogue". Indian Foreign Secretary Nirupama Rao said: "the time was not ripe to resume the suspended "composite dialogue, but "we will keep this channel of communication open" (Haran, 2010). The mistrust between the two South Asian powers has been lingering in the back drop of Mumbai attacks and subsequent internal chaos of Pakistan due to militancy and India's reluctance to resume dialogue further reduced the chances of cooperation or mitigation between India and Pakistan.

Sustaining confidence building process is rather a herculean task than initiating a totally new one. The phenomena of CBMs is largely misunderstood as 'war-time' measures. CBMs are more workable in peace times to bring adversaries closer to establish cooperative security. The sole purpose of conducting CBMs is not only to sign and implement an agreement but to keep communicating till consensus is built and trust is obtained to proceed further. A purposeful set of CBMs entails efforts and initiatives that help parties to open up and continue communication, bringing a good level of trust in the relationship and promising sustainability of the measures in future. In case of India and Pakistan, the main challenge remains for them to re-initiate confidence building process and then transform that into a 'sustainable and target oriented' peace process. The sustainability of such dialogues between India and Pakistan has always been risky due to the role of peace spoilers on both sides. The two countries need to adopt an approach that doesn't encourage disruption or discontinuation of the existent peace process for any reason or event.

The paper dwells upon the following:

a. Outlining the existing measures to build trust between India and Pakistan. A chronological survey has been given on the measures taken by two countries to build trust for peaceful management of their differences.

b. A comprehensive analysis on the CBMs in South Asia comprising implementation of the measures.

c. Recommendations for CBMs with future prospects to prepare grounds or lay foundation for sustainable conflict management and resolution between India and Pakistan.

Chronological Survey of the Initiatives between India and Pakistan

The total number of initiatives to engage the two countries through trust building measures officially and unofficially are as follows (Hussain, 2003):

Ceasefires

a. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

India - Pakistan CBMs since 1947 A Critical Analysis
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.