North Korea Sanctions: United States Has Increased Flexibility to Impose Sanctions, but United Nations Is Impeded by a Lack of Member State Reports *

Current Politics and Economics of Northern and Western Asia, April 1, 2015 | Go to article overview

North Korea Sanctions: United States Has Increased Flexibility to Impose Sanctions, but United Nations Is Impeded by a Lack of Member State Reports *


United States Government Accountability Office

WHY GAO DID THIS STUDY

North Korea is a closely controlled society, and its regime has taken actions that threaten the United States and other United Nations member states. North Korean tests of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles have prompted the United States and the UN to impose sanctions on North Korea.

GAO was asked to review U.S. and UN sanctions on North Korea. This report (1) identifies the activities that are targeted by U.S. and UN sanctions specific to North Korea, (2) describes how the United States implements its sanctions specific to North Korea and examines the challenges it faces in doing so, and (3) describes how the UN implements its sanctions specific to North Korea and examines the challenges it faces in doing so. To answer these questions, GAO analyzed documents from the Departments of State, Treasury, and Commerce, and the UN. GAO also interviewed officials from the Departments of State, Treasury, and Commerce, and the UN.

WHAT GAO RECOMMENDS

GAO recommends the Secretary of State work with the UN Security Council to ensure that member states receive technical assistance to help prepare and submit reports on their implementation of UN sanctions on North Korea. The Department of State concurred with this recommendation.

WHAT GAO FOUND

U.S. executive orders (EO) and the Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act target activities for the imposition of sanctions that include North Korean (Democratic People's Republic of Korea) proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and transferring of luxury goods. The EOs and the act allow the United States to respond by imposing sanctions, such as blocking the assets of persons involved in these activities. United Nations (UN) Security Council resolutions target similar North Korean activities, and under the UN Charter, all 193 UN member states are required to implement sanctions on persons involved in them.

U.S. officials informed GAO that obtaining information on North Korean persons has hindered the U.S. interagency process for imposing sanctions, and that EO 13687, announced in January 2015, provided them with greater flexibility to sanction persons based on their status as government officials rather than evidence of specific conduct. State and Treasury impose sanctions following an interagency process that involves: reviewing intelligence and other information to develop evidence needed to meet standards set by U.S. laws and EOs, vetting possible actions within the U.S. government, determining whether to sanction, and announcing sanctions decisions. Since 2006, the United States has imposed sanctions on 86 North Korean persons, including on 13 North Korean government persons under EO 13687.

Although UN sanctions have a broader reach than U.S. sanctions, the UN lacks reports from many member states describing the steps or measures they have taken to implement specified sanctions provisions. The UN process for imposing sanctions relies on a UN Security Council committee and a UN panel of experts that investigates suspected sanctions violations and recommends actions to the UN. The Panel of Experts investigations have resulted in 32 designations of North Korean or related entities for sanctions since 2006, including a company found to be shipping armaments from Cuba in 2013. While the UN calls upon all member states to submit reports detailing plans for implementing specified sanctions provisions, fewer than half have done so because of a range of factors including a lack of technical capacity. The committee uses the reports to uncover gaps in sanctions implementation and identify member states that require additional outreach. The United States as a member state has submitted all of these reports. UN and U.S. officials agree that the lack of reports from all member states is an impediment to the UN's implementation of its sanctions.

May 13, 2015

The Honorable Bob Corker

Chairman

Committee on Foreign Relations

United States Senate

Dear Mr. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

North Korea Sanctions: United States Has Increased Flexibility to Impose Sanctions, but United Nations Is Impeded by a Lack of Member State Reports *
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.