The Appropriation Process

By Gill, Clair F. | Military Review, March/April 1999 | Go to article overview

The Appropriation Process


Gill, Clair F., Military Review


On 17 SEPTEMBER 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, our founding fathers sent to the states a document for ratification, the Constitution of the United Staes. To this day that document remains remarkably intact, having been amended only 27 times since ratification. Any discussion about the appropriation process must begin there. The Constitution directs that "the President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States."1 Further, the Constitution explains that the Congress provides the revenues for the country"All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills."2 the Constitution also addresses Congress's role with respect to the military. In part, that section provides that "the Congress shall have power... to raise and support armies, but no appropriate of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years."3 Out Constitution establishes the Congress as the branch of the American government responsible for providing funds for the nation's defense.

While the first Congress did not envision a separate authorization and appropriation process, it estabished the protocols by which both processes operate. Spending bills still must originate in the House. Both houses still have to agree, word for word, with what is sent to the president to be signed into law. If the president vetoes the bill, the constitutional process for overriding this veto still exists untouched. Having said all that, there remain nuances in the process to be examined and explained.

This process of appropriating funds for the national defense consists of a series of dynamic events that seldom occur exactly the same way from year to year. Certain events recur every year, but how they occur or when depends on congressional leadership, administration leadership and national events or externalities impacting Congress. The appropriate process formally begins the first Monday in February with the submission or the president's budget to Congress and ends with the president signing the Defense Appropriations Bill into law, ideally prior to the beginning of the new fiscal year on 1 October.

The article explains and provides insight into the process of appropriating funds by the Congress. The evnets that lead up to the president's signature can be generally categorized as:

Budget justification by the services

House and Senate "marks" documented on committee bills and reports.

"Heartburn" appeals and conference.

Bill signing by the president. Visually, the process is depicted by the figure on page 27.

The Army's budget is included in the publication of the president's budget after it has been carefully consideredd by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), Office of Management and Budget and the White House Budget Office. This budget provides programming and financing information for all Army appropriations, but it does not contain detailed justification materials that are necessary for the Army budget justification before Congress.

Army budget justification begins with the submission of budget-supporting information to justify or validate the Army's funding requests to Congress. All services go through this process and must coordinate with the Department of Defense. At the service level, the Army prepares and submits Budget Justification Books (J Books). These are prepared in the budget office for each appropriation with extensive support from the entire Army staff (ARSTAF) and secretariat. The appropriations covered by J Books include military personnel (pay), operations and maintenance, research and development, the five procurement accounts, military construction, environment and chemical demilitarization. US Army Reserve and Army National Guard versions of the operations and maintenance and the personnel accounts also have separate J Books.

Committee professional staffers use the J Books to conduct analyses and make recommendations to the members of the Appropriation Subcommittees on Defense and Military Construction. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Appropriation Process
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.