Word-Formative and Semantic Characteristics of the Derived Verbs of Moving Off/away in the Russian, German and Tatar Languages: The Comparative Aspect

By Akhmetova, Leysan A. | Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, January 1, 2016 | Go to article overview

Word-Formative and Semantic Characteristics of the Derived Verbs of Moving Off/away in the Russian, German and Tatar Languages: The Comparative Aspect


Akhmetova, Leysan A., Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict


(ProQuest: ... denotes non-USASCII text omitted.)

INTRODUCTION

Word-formative and semantic processes taking place in language have been of stable interest for the scholars for a long time and till now. Under conditions of modern sociocultural realities, in the period of increasing globalization and internationalization of the world, the study of word-formation and semantic systems of the language in comparative aspect acquires a special importance. Of intense interest, from our point of view, is comparative study of verb derivation in multistructural languages, as "it allows to establish identities and differences in expressing common and individual semes, to single out common word-formative relations, to elicit lexical and word-formative lacunes, as well as to demonstrate universal and unique features in conceptualization and categorization of extralinguistic reality by the representatives of an ethno-cultural society" (Akhmetova L. A., 2015, p. 47).

MATERIALS AND RESEARCH METHODS

In the course of the study we carried out the contrastive analysis of the prefixal verbs of motion of the Russian and German languages that form derivational types with the meaning "moving off spatial reference point", and their semantic correlation with synonymous word- formation models of the Tatar language. The illustrative material was the data from "The National Corpus of the Russian Language" (National Corpus of the Russian Language, the date of access: 25.03.16), the Tatar language - the data from the national Tatar Electronic Library System ("Tatar Book Fund") (The Tatar Book Fund, the date of access: 3.04.16), the source of the examples of German derived verbs of motion was literary works by German authors. In the process of comparing there were elicited the differential semes, revealed in each of the languages semantic features specific for their systems.

RESULTS

In valency structure of the derived verbs of motion (hereinafter DVM) with derivational meaning (hereinafter DM) "moving off/away spatial reference", of priority status is start point of moving, that is, the point of departure (DP).

In works on Russian word-formation, usually seven types of derivation (DT) with the prefix OT- differentiated with respect to spatial, quantitative and resultant meanings are singled out. In the field of spatial relations, combining with the verbs of unidirectional motion, the prefix OT- (OTO-) expresses the meaning of "to move off\away from the point with the help of action" (Aminova A.A., 1993, p. 138); "the beginning of moving in close proximity to the brink of a spatial reference point, from which the motion will be executed by the subject or the object" (Yemelyanova L.V., 2003, p. 103). The differential seme is "moving off/away spitting distance". The directional semantics of DVM with OT- is supported by prepositional case construction (hereinafter PCC) ot + Genitive case, that is, there is an almost complete coincidence of direct spatial meanings of the prefix and the preposition. At the same time, the subject initially is near spatial reference point (hereinafter SRP), outside of it, i. e., moving off/away occurs without crossing the boundaries of SRP.

1. ... S.Babayan «Rotmistr Nezhentsev».

In the literature there are often examples of the use of DVM construction with OT- + PCC H3 + Genitive case, at that the seme "intersection of spatial reference point" is activated, i. e. In this context, SRP is perceived by the speaker as a kind of container inside of which there is the starting point of moving off/away. In this case, traced the fuzzy synonymous connection with DVM with bn- + PCC H3 + Genitive case, the structure of which also contains the seme "departure".

1 a. ... K.Paustovsky «The Story about Life. The Time of High Expectations».

The meaning "move off/away from somewhere through the action designated by a motivating verb" is explicated in the Russian language by the verbs with the prefix y-. …

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