Effect of Atomoxetine Treatment on Reading and Phonological Skills in Children with Dyslexia or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Dyslexia in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

By Shaywitz, Sally; Shaywitz, Bennett et al. | Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, February 2017 | Go to article overview

Effect of Atomoxetine Treatment on Reading and Phonological Skills in Children with Dyslexia or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Dyslexia in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial


Shaywitz, Sally, Shaywitz, Bennett, Wietecha, Linda, Wigal, Sharon, McBurnett, Keith, Williams, David, Kronenberger, William G., Hooper, Stephen R., Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology


[Author Affiliation]

Sally Shaywitz. 1 Yale Center for Dyslexia & Creativity, New Haven, Connecticut.

Bennett Shaywitz. 1 Yale Center for Dyslexia & Creativity, New Haven, Connecticut.

Linda Wietecha. 2 Eli Lilly and Company and/or one of its subsidiaries, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Sharon Wigal. 3 AVIDA, Inc. , Newport Beach, California.

Keith McBurnett. 4 Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

David Williams. 5 inVentiv Health Clinical, Indianapolis, Indiana.

William G. Kronenberger. 6 Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Stephen R. Hooper. 7 School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

These data were presented, in part, at the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) 59th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA; October 23-28, 2012.

Funding: This research study was funded and conducted by Lilly, USA, LLC.

Address correspondence to: Sally Shaywitz, MD, Yale Center for Dyslexia & Creativity, 129 York St., Suite 1P, New Haven, CT 06511, E-mail: sally.shaywitz@yale.edu

Introduction

Dyslexia (or specific reading disability) represents an unexpected difficulty in reading for an individual's age, intelligence, or professional status. Fluent reading--reading that is rapid, automatic, and with good intonation (prosody)--is very frequently affected, even in dyslexic readers who have learned to read accurately (Shaywitz 1998; Lyon et al. 2003; Ferrer et al. 2010). Dyslexia is highly prevalent and persistent and occurs worldwide. In the United States, dyslexia rates range from 5% to 17.5% (Felton et al. 1990; Bruck 1992; Francis et al. 1996; Shaywitz et al. 1999; Shaywitz 2003). Worldwide prevalence rates also are high, with rates ranging from 8% in mainland China to almost 13% in Hong Kong (Chan et al. 2007; Liu et al. 2012).

At its core, dyslexia is primarily a problem with phonological processing (i.e., getting to the elemental sounds of spoken language) affecting both spoken and written language. To learn to read, the child has to develop the unconscious awareness that spoken words can be pulled apart into the elemental particles of speech (i.e., phonemes) and that the letters in a written word represent these sounds. Evidence from a number of lines of investigation provides overwhelming evidence that a deficit in phonology represents the most robust and specific correlate of dyslexia (Liberman and Shankweiler 1991; Morris et al. 1998; Shaywitz 1998, 2003).

In addition to the centrality of phonological mechanisms in dyslexia, recent evidence supports an important role for attentional mechanisms in dyslexia (Shaywitz and Shaywitz 2008; Kovelman et al. 2012). Cognitive studies suggest that attention is a critical, overlooked component facilitating the translation of print into speech and is particularly important for achieving fluent reading (Reynolds and Besner 2006). Further evidence that attentional processes may be important in reading comes from studies emphasizing the comorbidity of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (August and Garfinkel 1990; Dykman and Ackerman 1991; Shaywitz et al. 1994; Willcutt and Pennington 2000; Germano et al. 2010; Yoshimasu et al. 2010). Estimates of rates in those with dyslexia and comorbid ADHD range from 9% to as high as 60%, whereas patients initially diagnosed with ADHD have a co-occurrence of dyslexia reported to range from 15% to 45% (Willcutt and Pennington 2000; Willcutt et al. 2001; Carroll et al. 2005; Maughan and Carroll 2006; Sexton et al. 2012).

The role of attentional mechanisms in dyslexia is further supported by a recent functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity analysis. Using data-driven brain parcellation, connectivity profiles were compared between dyslexic and typical readers. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Effect of Atomoxetine Treatment on Reading and Phonological Skills in Children with Dyslexia or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Dyslexia in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.