Counselors' Satisfaction with Various Aspects of HIV/AIDS Counseling Job in India

By Shukla, Archana; Tripathi, Pooja | International Journal of Education and Management Studies, March 1, 2016 | Go to article overview

Counselors' Satisfaction with Various Aspects of HIV/AIDS Counseling Job in India


Shukla, Archana, Tripathi, Pooja, International Journal of Education and Management Studies


Job satisfaction is one of the most studied constructs in the areas of industrial and organizational psychology, social psychology, organizational behavior, personnel and human resource management, and organizational management. This makes sense in that knowledge of the determinants, the consequences, and correlates of job satisfaction can be vital to employee as well as organizationally valued goals and success (Cranny, Smith, & Stone, 1992). Proper management can only be attained through knowing what affects job satisfaction.

Implications of job satisfaction

Job satisfaction may affect productivity indirectly through burnout, absenteeism, apathy, and turnover, all of which can lead to a lack of work continuity. According to Spector (1985), "attitudes have been shown to relate to behavior although correlations are typically modest; withdrawal behavior, turnover, absenteeism, and withdrawal intentions are expected to correlate with satisfaction..." (p. 695). Bruce and Blackburn (1992) noted that satisfied employees are more likely to experience high internal work motivation, to give high quality workperformance, and to have low absenteeism and turnover (p. 6).

The impact of employee turnover intentions on organizational effectiveness and employee morale has remained the focus of organizational researchers in recent times (Chen, Polyhart, Thomas, Anderson, & Bliese, 2011 ; Kacmar, Andrews, Van Rooy, Steilberg & Cerrone, 2006; Pitts, Marvel, & Fernandez, 2011; Sean, Godkin, Fleishman, & Kidwell, 2010; Shaw, Gupta, & Delery, 2005).

A worker's overall well-being can be affected by how a worker feels about the job. According to Gnmberg (1979), an individual's feelings about pay, security, and other benefits and rewards received from a job are of great importance to the individual's well being. Usually people move to other jobs when they are not satisfied with their jobs or when the given working conditions in a job are not satisfactory. Employees decide whether to leave the organization or not before their eventual exit. They rim to better salaries and/or to better service conditions.

Gender differences in job satisfaction

Available literature on gender differences in job satisfaction provides inconclusive findings. Some studies show that females are more satisfied than males (Kim, 2005; Kaiser, 2005; Lee, 2008; Bender et al., 2005; Saner &Eyupoglu, 2012), some show that males are more satisfied than females (Clack, 2002; Kifle & Desta, 2012) while there are some that have failed to find any significant gender differences in job satisfaction (Viosky & Aguilar, 2009; Gumbang et al., 2010; Lee, 2012).

Two lines of arguments are possible in the context of job satisfaction of males and females belonging to the middle class. Since males are more ambitious and primary caretaker of family responsibilities a job seems a bigger necessity formales than it is for females. Social and familial expectations for consistent earning and pressures to match up to these expectations are more for males than they are for females. F or these reasons, males are more likely to have greater ambition regarding their jobs, identify more closely with their jobs and also be more committed to their jobs. This line of argument suggests that males would be more satisfied with their jobs than females are. On the contrary, for females, being in a job is more 'optional' and more 'choice' and 'convenience' driven than it is for males. Social pressures on females for engaging with paid work is comparatively much less or nonexistent. Therefore, whatever job they get, if they get, they are likely to feel happy over being 'allowed' to work, contributing to family income and upgrading family's living standards. This line of argument suggests that females would be more satisfied with their jobs than are males.

Tenure related differences in job satisfaction

Then, there are studies that suggest that tenure has a U-shaped relationship with job satisfaction (Herzberg et al. …

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