Language Teaching Methodology: Through the "Changing Winds and Shifting Sands"

By Khalaji, Hamid Reza; Nowroozzadeh, Negar | Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods, March 1, 2017 | Go to article overview

Language Teaching Methodology: Through the "Changing Winds and Shifting Sands"


Khalaji, Hamid Reza, Nowroozzadeh, Negar, Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods


Introduction

This paper casts a glance at historical development in foreign language teaching since the fifteenth century to the present time. The history of language teaching has undergone many changes which is often described as "changing winds and shifting sands". In fact, there are three stages in the history of language teaching: "Ancient" (the fifteenth & the sixteenth centuries), "Classic" (the seventeenth, the eighteenth & the nineteenth centuries), and "Modern" (from the twentieth century to the present time).

It is critical for the teachers to understand the historical perspectives behind each methodology by means of which they can understand the evolving process of some insights which have been embodied in different methodologies (Brown, 1994). There are different reasons why different methodologies emerge in different eras, i.e., change of theories about language and language teaching; different purposes for learning languages (for reading religious books or for being able to communicate in a foreign language, etc.) ; the effect of the development of new theories in other disciplines such as psychology, sociology, etc. ( such as the effect of behavioral psychology on methodology which leads to the emergence of ALM); the political reasons ( French, Italian, and English became widespread due to political changes in Europe). And lastly, the "practical realities" of the classroom and sometimes the mixture of some of the above- mentioned reasons themselves have given rise to some methodological changes (Richards & Rodgers, 1999).

Review of Related Literature

There are three stages in the history of language teaching: Ancient (the fifteenth & the sixteenth centuries), classic (the seventeenth, the eighteenth & the nineteenth centuries), and modern (from the twentieth century to the present time). In the fifteenth century, Latin was the cardinal language of different aspects of life such as government, commerce, education, etc. (Richards & Rodgers, 1999). In the sixteenth century, political changes happened in Europe which led to the popularity of French, Italian, and English, and Latin was no longer used as language of communication. Accordingly, Latin was just taught as a subject at schools (Brown, 1994; Richards and Rodgers, 1999). Therefore, grammatical aspects of Classical Latin were emphasized and more advanced students also studied rhetoric (Richards and Rodgers, 1999).

The purpose for foreign language learning was to increase speakers' intellectuality (Brown, 1994; Richards & Rodgers, 1999). In fact, since the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries, foreign language studies followed the way classical Latin was studied (Richards & Rodgers, 1999). In the eighteenth century, the study of modern languages was included in the curriculum of European schools. By the nineteenth century, teaching foreign languages in the same way Latin was taught became the model for teaching languages in schools and GTM emerged (Brown, 1994; Richards & Rodgers, 1999). In fact, GTM was the paramount method of language teaching from 1840s to 1940s (Richards& Rodgers, 1999; Brown, 1994; Chastain, 1988).

Actually, a real movement in the foreign language teaching commenced in the nineteenth century, what continued in the twentieth century even more rapid than before (Chastain, 1988). As early as the mid-nineteenth century, criticism against GTM principles began (Richards & Rodgers, 1999). At the same time, people's needs for language learning gradually changed and people wanted to learn foreign languages to be able to speak. Furthermore, reformers expressed new ideas about the nature of language and nature of language learning. Through different studies, the reformers whose names were Marcel, Prendergast and Gouin inferred that the principles of natural language learning in children can be helpful in assisting adults to learn language (Brown, 1994 Richards & Rodgers, 1999; Howatt, 1984). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Language Teaching Methodology: Through the "Changing Winds and Shifting Sands"
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.