Cultural Self-Exploration Questionnaire

By Henriksen, Richard C., Jr.; Watts, Richard E. | TCA Journal, Fall 1999 | Go to article overview

Cultural Self-Exploration Questionnaire


Henriksen, Richard C., Jr., Watts, Richard E., TCA Journal


This article presents the Cultural Self-Exploration Questionnaire, which was designed to assist counselors, counselors-in-training, counselor educators and supervisors develop self-awareness of their personal culturally-based prejudices, assumptions, and biases that may impede their work with culturally diverse clients.

According to multicultural counseling literature, counselor self-awareness of personal prejudices, biases, stereotyping, values and assumptions that may be used in working with culturally diverse clients have been emphasized insufficiently. Counselors often evaluate the behavior of others based on their own cultural perspectives. One's cultural paradigm can influence diagnosis and treatment issues in situations when an understanding of client behavior does not include the cultural context in which the behavior takes place. It is imperative, therefore, that counselors develop awareness of their own stereotypical beliefs in order to avoid harming culturally diverse clients (e.g., Atkinson, Morten, & Sue, 1993; Baruth & Manning, 1999; Corey, Corey, & Callanan, 1998; Petersen, 1997; Sue & Sue, 1999).

Sue and Sue (1999) suggest that only "enlightened, nondefensive, open, and skilled" counseling professionals can understand minority group experiences and the issues involved in working with culturally diverse populations. A systematic attempt to identify characteristics of the culturally skilled therapist has been slow in developing. Recently, however, a set of proposed multicultural competencies has been developed (see Sue & Sue, 1999) and subsequently endorsed by several divisions within the American Counseling Association (ACA).--

According to the proposed multicultural competencies, one foundational goal of culturally competent counselors involves the process of becoming aware of their own "assumptions about human behavior, values, biases, preconceived notions, personal limitations, and so forth" (Sue & Sue, 1999). Thus, the initial multicultural competency addresses "Counselor Awareness of [His or Her] Own Cultural Values and Biases" (Sue & Sue, 1999, p. 225). A significant portion of the proposed competency states that culturally competent counselors "are aware and sensitive to their own cultural heritage and to valuing and respecting difference... are aware of how their own cultural backgrounds and experiences and attitudes, values, and biases influence psychological processes...and have specific knowledge about their own racial and cultural heritage and how it personally and professionally affects their definitions of normal ity-abnormal ity and the process of couns (Sue & Sue, 1999, . 225).

Given that cultural understanding begins by looking at oneself, the use of guided self-assessments can help both counselors and counselors- in-training gain insight into how their personal experiences and societal interactions have influenced their worldview, beliefs, and values (Ancis, 1998). Developing the skills necessary to work with culturally different clients begins with a thorough understanding of self. Baruth and Manning (1999) have stated that:

Self-awareness is the consciousness a person has of specific events that influence her or his psychological, social, emotional, and cultural attributes. It includes identity (what one thinks of oneself), and one's sense of identity as influenced by the perception of self and others. Identity includes many factors such as race, ethnicity, and gender. (p. 33)

Ideally counselors should develop an awareness of their own cultural heritages and how these heritages influence what they believe and value, with special attention given to how these beliefs, attitudes, and values pertain to culturally different individuals. For a counselor, the process of developing cultural self-awareness should begin with exploration of one's culture and how it affects personal psychosocial development. Counselors should pay particular attention to factors that impacted the development of their ethnic identity in childhood and adolescence. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Cultural Self-Exploration Questionnaire
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.