Root & Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey

By Watkins, Ralph | Afro-Americans in New York Life and History, July 31, 2000 | Go to article overview

Root & Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey


Watkins, Ralph, Afro-Americans in New York Life and History


Root & Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey

Root & Branch weaves together an account of African American life in early New York and New Jersey that contains discussion of various social, cultural, and political events from earliest European contact to the end of the Civil War. The material on the Dutch is an excellent introduction to the research and writing on New Netherland that has occurred since the 1970s. For example, the author informs us that Jan Rodriques, a black sailor, was left on Manhattan Island in 1613. A member of the Dutch ship, Jonge Tobias, Rodrigues's status, free or slave, is difficult to determine because although left behind, he remained in possession of both musket and sword. Rodriques's ambiguous status, plus his West Indian and African roots, and his presence on a Dutch ship anticipates the multiracial, multicultural character of the community that will eventually form at the base of Manhattan Island by the middle of the 17th Century. As more people of African descent arrive, the foundation of that community can be discerned by 1628. Although the majority of Africans entered New Netherland as slaves, most were later emancipated. The same pattern was present in New Jersey. However, the introduction of British colonial practices following the Dutch defeat in 1664 slowed the rate of emancipation.

The Articles of Capitulation (August 27, 1664) established British control over the Dutch possessions in North America. Defeat, and the sudden influx of Barbadian planters and slaves into the area, accelerated the curtailment of civil liberties for Africans and their descendants. Hodges provides ample information on the rapid slide of New York colony blacks into lifetime bondage. Starting with, "An Act for Regulating Negro, Indian and Mallato [sic] Slaves," both New Jersey and New York constructed legal apparatuses that severely hampered persons of African descent. In addition, the British began importing many more Africans than West Indians after 1710. This had mixed results for as Orlando Patterson has argued, the presence of significant numbers of newly arrived "raw Africans" tended to increase the possibility of slave revolt. Hodges provides evidence to support Patterson by recounting the slave rebellions of 1712 and 1741, along with the emergence of roving bands of slaves who operated in rural New York and New Jersey. Unfortunately, the author does not explore whether or not these "rogues" had established maroon communities in the manner of Africans living in the southern British colonies.

Presenting the cultural impact of African immigration on the region is another important contribution of Hodges's synthesis. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Root & Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.