A Party in Exile: Is It a Realistic Hope?

By Isfahani, Nazie | Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, September 1995 | Go to article overview

A Party in Exile: Is It a Realistic Hope?


Isfahani, Nazie, Washington Report on Middle East Affairs


A Party in Exile: Is It a Realistic Hope?

By Nazie Isfahani

With the recent worsening of relations between the United States and Iran, and given Iran's current economic situation, some observers predict an exile force may take power there. This is the hope of one political exile, Hassan Nazih, who served as director general of the National Iranian Oil Company in the first post-revolutionary government under Prime Minister Mehdi Bazargan.

Born in 1920 in Tabriz, capital of the northern province of Azerbaijan, Nazih studied law and obtained his degree from the University of Tehran at age 24. After three years as a judge, he returned to Europe to further his studies.

In 1953, he interrupted his doctoral studies at the University of Geneva to return to Iran. There he created a political movement opposed to the removal from office by Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi of Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadeq. Although he had been appointed by the Shah, Mossadeq was an outspoken nationalist who expropriated the British-owned Iran Oil Company and often condemned the Shah's inability to free himself from Western influence.

Although he was politically active and already had joined the nationalist party, "Iran," as a young student, Nazih formally entered the political scene by working within the Iranian Bar Association (IBA), eventually becoming its president.

Continued Defiance of the Shah

Mossadeq died in 1967, but Nazih continued his defiance of the Shah until the Islamic revolution by working with opposition forces such as the National Front, which was banned by the SAVAK, the Shah's secret police. Nazih founded several organizations including the Association of Iranian Jurists, which he directed from 1966 until 1978.

He also created the IBA's Human Rights Commission, which was banned in 1980, a year after the Islamic Revolution, by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini for its outspoken opposition to the Islamic regime. Many of its members were jailed and seven were executed.

Ironically, it was that same Islamic Revolution that thrust Nazih to the forefront of the national political scene. In 1979, after considering Nazih's record of opposition to the Shah's rule--by then he had been jailed three times by the SAVAK--Mehdi Bazargan appointed Nazih to head the National Iranian Oil Company.

As the revolutionary government began implementing the shariah or Islamic law, Nazih began his opposition to the Khomeini regime. Seven months later, Nazih was ousted from his position for opposing the clergy's decision to fire 40,000 oil workers accused of participating in anti-regime activities.

When he was summoned to appear for trial by the late Khomeini on charges of treason and violation of Islamic law--for which he might have been sentenced to death--Nazih escaped from Iran and took refuge in France. There, like most Iranian political exiles, he has remained active in the Iranian community.

Internal Reform Precluded

Nazih believes that the fear of harsh sentences precludes effective internal reform from within Iran or its government bodies. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • A full archive of books and articles related to this one
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

A Party in Exile: Is It a Realistic Hope?
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.