Candidate Physical Fitness Testing

By Rafilson, Fred M. | Law & Order, March 2000 | Go to article overview

Candidate Physical Fitness Testing


Rafilson, Fred M., Law & Order


The need for legally defensible methodologies and outcomes

There is a tremendous need in law enforcement for legally defensible physical fitness testing methods. Several factors have brought this area of personnel selection into the limelight, including increased levels of public safety employee hiring, an increasingly litigious society, and confusion regarding the validity and legality of current testing models.

Police department hiring has increased over the last several years. It is not unusual for a small or mediumsized agency to receive several hundred applications for a posted job opening. Given most municipal and civil service rules and regulations, the majority of these candidates will be invited to participate in the hiring process.

A good selection process will attempt to assess a candidate's job-related abilities-and physically demanding tasks are an essential part of being an officer. Physical ability or fitness must be measured in order to ensure that newly hired employees can handle the job demands. The question then becomes, what is the best way to make this assessment?

Physical Testing Models

Physical testing models for public safety positions fall into two types. The first-generally called a fitness test-is usually based on the Cooper standards. This test measures a person's level of fitness through sit-ups, mile-and-a-half runs, bench press repetitions, etc. While they initially used different absolute cutoff scores on these components for men and women of various age groups, the 1991 Civil Rights Act prohibiting race and sex norming of test scores produced a consensus among industrial psychologists, assessment specialists and human resource professionals that the separate norms were illegal.

The tide has since turned again, however. Case law has now shown that different absolute cutoff scores on fitness tests can be defended because they are actually applied at the same percentiles for men, women, and different age groups. In other words, while they have different cutoff scores, they represent the same level of general fitness. [For complete details on these cases, see Powell v. Reno, C.A. No. 96-2743 (NHJ) (D.D.C.) (1997) and Peanick V. Reno, No. 95-2594(1 8h Cir.) (1996).]

The second model is known as job-simulation "physical ability testing." Candidates perform a series of linked exercises that simulate an officer's job (such as climbing a fence, dry-firing a weapon, and dragging a dummy) in order to measure their ability to perform essential job tasks. The same score (i.e., the ability to perform these tasks in a reasonable period of time) is required of all candidates, regardless of sex or age. Hence, separate norms are not permissible.

Which model is better? The answer depends on the priorities of the particular agency. The fitness model has the obvious advantage of equal passing rates for men and women. This is a tremendous advantage when one considers the need to increase female representation in public safety positions. In addition, a fitness-based program may be seen as quite desirable by union officials and incumbent employees when an agency is in the process of implementing an on-going (e.g., yearly) fitness assessment because it allows for score adjustments based on age.

An agency choosing to implement a fitness model of physical testing need go no farther than to obtain the national non-native (e.g., Cooper) data for traditional fitness exercises and begin testing. Because there will not be adverse impact against any protected class of individuals, the agency need not worry about legal challenges based on sex or age discrimination.

Despite these advantages, the validity of the "fitness" method itself may be considered a drawback. It is a logical argument to assert that people who are more fit are more likely to successfully perform physically demanding tasks.

A recent study by the Birmingham Police Department provided evidence of the validity of the "fitness" components of the Alabama POST physical ability test for predicting the ability to perform (simulated) job tasks. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Candidate Physical Fitness Testing
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.