Congressional Hearings Target Middle East

By McArthur, Shirl | Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, November 3, 1997 | Go to article overview

Congressional Hearings Target Middle East


McArthur, Shirl, Washington Report on Middle East Affairs


Congressional Hearings Target Middle East

SENATE LOOKS AT ARMS TO IRAN

Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations subcommittee for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Sam Brownback held hearings April 17 and May 6 on the proliferation of arms sales to Iran. At the April hearing, Brownback's objective apparently was to establish first that, in spite of previous congressional efforts, Iran has been successful in getting a variety of sophisticated conventional weapons, as well as chemical and nuclear technology and, in some cases, material; and second that the administration had avoided applying the sanctions already enacted by Congress. However, what the heating actually accomplished was to affirm what most people already know: unilateral sanctions are clumsy and ineffective and, without the cooperation of its friends and allies, the U.S. cannot by itself prevent Iran from acquiring sophisticated weapons.

Witnesses included Sen. Alfonse D'Amato (R-NY), Acting Assistant Secretary of State David Welch, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Proliferation Robert Einhorn, former CIA Director James Woolsey, and Leonard Spector, director of the nuclear non-proliferation project at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

In his opening statement, Brownback pointed out that only twice "in recent memory" has President Clinton invoked the laws passed by Congress to sanction countries selling missile or nuclear weapons technology to Iran, and that neither case involved either Russia or China, the two main offenders.

D'Amato aimed most of his fire at "our allies [who] are providing Iran and Libya with the hard currency enabling them to fund their aggression and are contributing to the menace of terrorism." He warned the administration about the recently concluded agreement with the European Union regarding the implementation of the HelmsBurton Act (sanctions on Cuba) and the Iran-Libya Sanctions Act. He pointed out that the agreement says the U.S. will work with the EU toward granting EU countries and companies waivers under the provisions of the Act. He cautioned the administration that "any suggestion that the European Union should be granted a blanket waiver without following the stipulations of the Iran-Libya Sanctions Act is a mistake."

Welch acknowledged that the non-proliferation and sanctions acts already passed by Congress have had little tangible impact on Iran. However he belittled the European approach of "dialogue" with Iran and expressed the hope that Europeans eventually would follow U.S. leadership to enact "measures that impose a tangible cost on Iran."

Neither D'Amato nor Welch seemed to care that D'Amato's aggressiveness and the administration's preachiness (which so enraged Europe and Japan at the Denver summit) would be seen as arrogance in Europe, and would be unlikely to achieve the intended result.

The second, May 6, heating was entitled "The Arming of Iran: Who is Responsible?" It was obvious that Brownback had already decided the answer was Russia and China, and had invited a group of three distinguished experts to provide the details: Dr. Gary Bertsch, director of the Center for International Trade and Security at the University of Georgia; Dr. Gary Milhollin, director of the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control; and Dr. Seth Cams from the National Defense University in Washington, DC. Although the three witnesses provided details of various Russian, Chinese and North Korean arms sales and technology transfers to Iran, they disagreed over the advisability of further sanctions, especially unilateral sanctions.

Administration officials were invited to participate, but declined. Brownback implicitly supplied the reason for this in his opening statement, saying "it is little wonder the Europeans pay the U.S. no heed on what to do about Iran. They see us pushing our own companies around, but continuing to coddle" Russia and China. "The message we are sending could not be clearer: cutting off Iran's access to arms and weapons of mass destruction is less important to us than maintaining good relations with Russia and China. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • A full archive of books and articles related to this one
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Congressional Hearings Target Middle East
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.