Factors Predictive of Adolescents' Intentions to Use Birth Control Pills, Condoms, and Birth Control Pills in Combination with Condoms
Craig, Dorothy M, Wade, Karen E, Allison, Kenneth R, Irving, Hyacinth M, et al., Canadian Journal of Public Health
Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988) as a conceptual framework, 705 secondary school students were surveyed to identify their intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the theory explained between 23.596 and 45.8% of the variance in intentions. Variables external to the model such as past use, age, and ethnicity exhibited some independent effects. Attitudes were consistently predictive of intentions to use condoms, pills, and condoms in combination with pills for both male and female students. However, there were differences by gender in the degree to which subjective norms and perceived behavioural control predicted intentions. The findings suggest that programs should focus on: creation of positive attitudes regarding birth control pills and condoms; targeting important social influences, particularly regarding males' use of condoms; and developing strategies to increase students' control over the use of condoms.
La theorie du comportement axe sur un objectif (Ajzen, 1988) a servi de cadre de travail conceptuel pour mener un Bondage aupres de 705 etudiants at l'ecole secondaire visant at connaitre leurs intentions concernant (utilisation de la pilule anticonceptionnelle, du condom ou des deux methodes combinees. L'analyse de variance avec regression hierarchique a revele que la theorie expliquait entre 23,5 % et 45,8 % de la variance dans les intentions. Les variables exterieures au modele comme l'utihsation qu'ils en ont fait dans le passE, (age et le groupe ethnique ont rev& des effets independants. Les attitudes etaient previsibles tant chez les fifles que chez les garnons quant a (intention d'utiliser soit le condom, la pilule anticonceptionnelle ou bien une combina-ison des deux. Cependant, on a note des differences selon le sexe concernant la subjectivity des normes et la perception de contr6le des comportements des intentions prevues. Les conclusions indiquent que les programmes devraient s'attarder at: developper des attitudes positives au sujet de la pilule anticonceptionnelle et du condom; wiser les influences sociales importantes, en particulier en ce qui a trait a (utilisation du condom chez les hommes; et mettre au point des strategies pour accroitre la maitrise des etudiants pour ce qui est de (utilisation du condom.
Surveys in Canada and the United States have shown evidence of high levels of sexual activity among adolescents and young adults, with increasing rates by age. 1-4 According to the Canada Youth and AIDS study, 31% of males and 29% of females in grade nine have had sexual intercourse at least once.' Furthermore, several studies suggest that many are not using condoms or are using them inconsistently.1,25-10 Also, studies have noted that young people tend to use condoms for contraception rather than protection against STDs11-13 and to not use condoms when taking oral contraceptives.13,14 This is of concern because unprotected sexual activity poses serious health threats for youth, including sexually transmitted diseases, HIV infection, and unplanned pregnancy.2,15,16
The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)17 was used as the conceptual framework for the study reported here. This theory, which is an extension of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA),18 suggests that a specific behaviour is a function of an individual's intention to perform that behaviour. Intention is a function of attitude towards the behaviour, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. In turn, attitude is a function of the belief that performing the behaviour leads to certain outcomes and the evaluation of these outcomes. Subjective norm is a function of the beliefs that important referents value the performance of a particular behaviour and the motivation to comply with the referents. Perceived behavioural control, which refers to the ease or difficulty of performing a behaviour, is influenced by internal factors such as information, skills, and emotions, as well as external factors such as dependence on others. …