Purview of Institutional Review Boards Increasing

Academe, November/December 2000 | Go to article overview

Purview of Institutional Review Boards Increasing


The AAUP is working with disciplinebased associations to develop a report on the issues raised when institutional review boards (IR_Bs) super-vise research in the social sciences and humanities, as they have increasingly been called on to do. The AAUP's partners for this project are the American Anthropological Association, the American Historical Association, the American Political Science Association, the Amerian Sociological Association, the Oral History Association, and the Organization of American Historians.

Campus IRBs, which have long overseen clinical research involving human subjects, draw their authority from Title 45, Part 46, of the Code of Federal Regulations, Protection of Human Subjects (often abbreviated as 45 CFR 46). Their common rules stipulate that research subjects give informed consent, that the well-being of such subjects not be unnecessarily compromised, and that the research in question be worth performing. A driving force behind 45 CFR 46 was concern over serious, life-endangering ethical violations such as the brutal and murderous experiments carried out by Nazi doctors on unwilling subjects during World War II, and the notorious experiment in which a group of doctors in Tuskeegee, Alabama, deliberately withheld syphilis treatments from hundreds of black men in order to observe their symptoms.

By law, research experiments funded by any of seventeen different federal agencies must be preapproved and monitored by IRBs. But because the idea of having different standards for different groups of human subjects is morally untenable at most universities, they typically require that all research involving human subjects, regardless of funding source, go through the IRBs.

No one questions the desirability of overseeing clinical investigations involving humans. But many observers have noted that in recent years IRBs have taken an increased interest in nonclinical work. Researchers in anthropology, sociology, and history, for example, report growing pressure to gain IRB clearance for their projects. The need to do so can be a problem, say some researchers, when IRB members, many of whom specialize in medicine or the hard sciences, don't understand the differences between clinical research methods and those used in the social sciences and the humanities.

"There have been instances in which IRBs have performed a valuable function in overseeing social science research, and I've heard social scientists report that their local IRB strengthened their research or alerted them to important ethical considerations," says AAUP associate secretary Jonathan Knight. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Purview of Institutional Review Boards Increasing
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.