How De We Teach? Results of a National Survey of Instruction in Secondary Art Education

By Burton, David | Studies in Art Education, Winter 2001 | Go to article overview

How De We Teach? Results of a National Survey of Instruction in Secondary Art Education


Burton, David, Studies in Art Education


Introduction

Nothing is more fundamental to art education than the quality of instruction. While innumerable research studies focus on instructional practices, most pertain to small-scale studies done with self-contained groups at specific sites. Few are replicated. Generalizing to different, wider or larger frames of reference remains problematic. These anecdotal studies may provide valuable insights into teaching practices for practitioners and other researchers, but they do not give the kind of broad-based, discipline-- wide information decision-makers, policy-makers, and advocates wishing to influence them need or want.

Only a few demographic studies have been done that investigate instructional practices in art education across the entire nation. The NAEP Arts Report Card (Persky et al., 1998) was the first examination of art education students, teachers and some instructional practices done by the federal government in 17 years. According to a presentation at the Advanced Training Workshop for the Use of NAEP 1997 Arts Database (Sedlacek, 1999), the NAEP 1997 Arts sample population of 2,999 was carefully chosen to be highly representative of eighth-grade students. However, many of these students were not taking art at the time they were tested, may have only had a minimum of art instruction in middle school, or may not have been taught by art specialists in elementary school. In other words, the sample population is highly representative of eighth-grade students, but not eighth-grade art students. Moreover, the published analysis was generally limited to simple percentages. Deeper analyses were not undertaken. The findings, on the whole, were disappointing and unrevealing.

The NAEP 1997 data contain a wealth of salient information. It is possible to examine the data using more selective statistical procedures to reveal how well specific sub-groups (including art students) actually did and what instructional practices are in fact more successful. Diket, Burton and Sabol (2000) are currently conducting a secondary analysis of the NAEP 1997 data.

Chapman (1982) conducted a national survey of 187 art teachers, their conditions, curricula and teaching practices, in 1979. Mims and Lankford (1995) surveyed 332 members of the NASA elementary division on several factors, including patterns of practice related to time and money, and their impact on curriculum content and instructional decision making. Leshnoff (1997) reported on a national survey she conducted of teaching practices of art teachers who had student entries accepted in more than one Crayola Dream-Maker art exhibition. Burton (1998a) did a survey of the assessment and evaluation practices of U.S. K-12 teachers of art. Burton (19986) also surveyed U.S. K-12 teachers of art as to their use of electronic technology in their instruction. Williams (1996) replicated a national survey done by Eisner and Dobbs (1986) which examined art museum education practices.

This survey seeks to provide demographic baseline data showing the kind, quality and quantity of art instruction in secondary public and private schools across the United States. It focuses on secondary art instruction for two reasons: many elementary schools do not have art specialists or art programs, and enough significant differences exist between elementary and secondary art instruction to warrant separate surveys.

The quality of a survey of this kind depends to a large degree on the randomness of the population surveyed. Educational Directories, Inc. of Mt. Prospect, Illinois, generated the random sample mailing list of 1,000 secondary art teachers selected from a pool of 34,055 public and private middle, junior high, high school, and K-12 schools in the United States. The mailing list was proportioned to the size of the student population within each state, and within the various school levels (middle school, high school, etc.) The teachers were not identified by name; the surveys were addressed to "Art Teacher," accompanied by their school mailing address. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

How De We Teach? Results of a National Survey of Instruction in Secondary Art Education
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.