Assets: An Opportunity for the Working Poor

By Blansett, Catherine; McKenna, Judy | Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, January 1, 2001 | Go to article overview

Assets: An Opportunity for the Working Poor

Blansett, Catherine, McKenna, Judy, Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences

Scholarship and Practice


Individual development accounts (IDAs) are designed to help low-income workers build an asset base to achieve goals and increase family well-being. In 1997, funding for the American Dream Policy Demonstration (ADD) established demonstration projects at 13 sites that are now being extensively evaluated for best practices. This article provides an overview of IDAs and examines the first year evaluation of ADD sites.


Individuals who must live without adequate food, housing, clothing, and medical care experience constant stress as they try to obtain a basic level of goods and services. This struggle affects their children, their jobs, and their communities. Results from the National Survey of America's Families show that approximately 50% of children in low-income families (families below 200% of the poverty level) experience some worries about, or have difficulty, affording food (McKenzie and Bell, 1997). When children are poorly nourished, unhealthy, and inadequately sheltered, they are likely to have poor attendance at school, perform poorly in school, and score lower on tests of cognitive ability (Brown and Pollitt, 1996; Conger, Conger, and Elder, 1997; Sherman, 1997). Adults who regularly deal with hardship are less productive employees, have fewer effective parenting skills, and are less likely to participate actively in their communities (Arnaud, 1993; Griffin and McKinley, 1994; Haveman et al., 1994).

Education is not the only answer in addressing issues of the working poor. Braun, Bauer, and Olson (1999) found that although low-income mothers knew a variety of ways to stretch their resources, it was still not enough to make ends meet. Effective strategies include offering a variety of community resources, providing interesting and motivating educational programs, working with employers to provide work skills that will sustain good jobs, and using incentives such as individual development accounts (IDAs) to encourage and reward goal setting and asset accumulation.


Communities throughout the nation are forging collaborative partnerships, extending the hope of self-sufficiency to thousands of working poor Americans. Through programs designed to offer individual development accounts (IDAs), public assistance recipients and the working poor are offered an opportunity to save toward the American dream of homeownership and a better future through postsecondary education or selfemployment. This paper presents a brief introduction to the background and policy that are fueling the IDA movement.

Individual development accounts present a new approach to social welfare theory. Michael Sherraden (1991), primary contributor to the theory behind IDAs, points out there have been conflicting goals in welfare policy. Traditional welfare policy emphasized basic needs and participants were penalized for any attempts to accumulate assets. At the same time, the nonpoor were subsidized through various tax programs such as the preferential capital gains policy, employer-sponsored and personally held retirement pension accounts, and tax subsidies for home ownership. To demonstrate this imbalance further, Sherraden (1991) describes the distribution of wealth in the country: the top 10% of Americans hold 40% of the national income, with the top 1% controlling 90% of the assets. National policy reinforces this inequity by subsidizing the nonpoor by over $200 billion in the form of various tax deductions. Public assistance recipients, on the other hand, have been denied benefits if their assets exceeded $1,000.

Asset-based welfare policy begins to correct this inequity. Rather than providing support for the poor based on income consumption alone, MAs support asset accumulation through matched savings accounts. The savings accounts are created specifically to save for asset goals that foster strength and self-sufficiency such as a down payment on a home, funds for postsecondary education, and funds to capitalize a business. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • A full archive of books and articles related to this one
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Cite this article

Cited article

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)


1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

Cited article

Assets: An Opportunity for the Working Poor


Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.