Community Junoir Secondary School Libraries in Botswana

By Metzger, Andrew J. B. | School Libraries Worldwide, July 2000 | Go to article overview

Community Junoir Secondary School Libraries in Botswana


Metzger, Andrew J. B., School Libraries Worldwide


A school library program needs to have certain basic elements if it is to function effectively. These elements are: the facility to house the information sources or instructional materials; a wide range of information sources to support the school's education program; adequate furniture and equipment for the use of the information sources; adequate finance to support the operations and services of the library; and adequate staffing to permit the facilities and information sources to be used to the maximum degree of effectiveness. This article presents a summary of the major findings and recommendations of a study of the library facilities in community junior secondary schools (CJSS) in Botswana.

Background Information

The concept of school libraries in Botswana started during the early 1960s, when the subject began to receive special attention. But it was during the 1970s that actual development began as a result of government development projects. The history of school libraries in Botswana is, therefore, relatively brief and recent; but within a short time most community junior secondary schools (CJSS) in the country received library buildings, staff, and information sources.

By 1963, there were only 10 secondary schools with libraries in Botswana. In the true sense, some of these were not really school libraries. They were mere collections of books, maps, reprographic equipment, and other essential supportive teaching and learning resources (Balesang, 1989). The development of school libraries in Botswana from 1960 to the present day can be attributed to the contributions made by the Government of Botswana, some foreign organizations, and the Botswana National Library Service (BNLS). Since 1962, the British Council, the Ranfurly Book Scheme, the Berkshire County Council, the English-Speaking Union, and the Overseas Development Agency have assisted in the development of school libraries in Botswana through their contributions. These organizations provided funds, library books, and equipment (Phehane, 1968; Bakwena, 1982; Balesang, 1989) to encourage the building up of adequate libraries for teachers and pupils, particularly those in higher secondary classes (Phehane, 1968).

The Bechuanaland Protectorate Development Plan 1963/1968 (1963) mentioned the inadequacy or the total lack of libraries in secondary schools and stated that provision would be made for adequate libraries. Immediately after independence, the government took over all secondary schools. The Ministry of Education and BNLS made arrangements for the BNLS to take control of all education libraries, particularly secondary school libraries and teacher training college libraries. The BNLS provided the staff, and the Ministry of Education provided the book stock (Baleseng, 1989).

In the 1970s, secondary school libraries were still at a developing stage, and library facilities varied considerably. A survey carried out in 1972 indicated that most of the secondary schools that responded had between 2,000 and 3,000 volumes. The recurrent budget allocated by the Ministry of Education was P3 (3 Pula) per pupil (Raseroka, 1980).

So far, there was no provision for full-time school librarians in most secondary schools. A teacher, assigned responsibility for the school library, was given a lighter teaching load to provide time to spend on library work. Student library assistants usually performed simple routine tasks. It was planned that BNLS would eventually provide staff to secondary school libraries (Raseroka, 1980). Since its inception in 1968, BNLS had regarded the development of secondary school libraries to be of utmost importance, but lack of staff hampered its work. Nevertheless, it was able to distribute gifts of books to schools.

In May 1969, BNLS, in collaboration with the University of Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland, organized the first training course for school librarians. It was a four-day course that proved popular and was successful (Parker, 1969). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Community Junoir Secondary School Libraries in Botswana
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.