Beyond Black and White: General Support for Race-Conscious Policies among African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans and Whites

By Lopez, Linda; Pantoja, Adrian D. | Political Research Quarterly, December 2004 | Go to article overview

Beyond Black and White: General Support for Race-Conscious Policies among African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans and Whites


Lopez, Linda, Pantoja, Adrian D., Political Research Quarterly


The study of racial attitudes in the U.S. has largely focused on white attitudes toward African Americans and policies designed to assist African Americans. We go beyond this black-white dichotomy by comparing African American, Latino, Asian American, and white attitudes toward opportunity-enhancing and outcome-directed policies. Data from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality, 1992-1994 are used to test the effects class and ethnic/racial identities play in shaping respondent's policy preferences. Because both of these programs are designed to apply equally to African Americans, Latinos, and Asian Americans, we model general support for these policies. In other words respondents who supported each program for all three groups were coded as favoring the particular policy. Our coding method more accurately captures the real world application of these programs. We find that even when we control for class status, measures of racial prejudice, as well as a host of other factors, ethnic and racial differences persist. African Americans strongly support both policies, while whites were the least supportive. Latinos and Asian Americans in varying degrees took intermediate positions on these issues. The research considers the reasons for the persistence of ethnic and racial differences on race-conscious policies and suggests future avenues for research.

Affirmative action programs and policies are under assault in America. The term affirmative action first appeared in President Kennedy's Executive Order 10925 and later in Title VII of the 1964 Rights Act, both dealing with discrimination in employment. Over time, through judicial interpretations and administrative guidelines, the term has come to mean and include "goals," "timetables," and "quotas" to remedy discrimination in the workplace, education, and other related public spheres. President Johnson first articulated the rationale for affirmative action in a well-known speech given at Howard University in 1965 where he stated that, "You don't take a person who, for years, has been hobbled by chains and liberate him, bring him to the starting line of a race and then say, 'You are free to compete with all others' and still justly believe you have been completely fair." Thus, from its inception, affirmative action was rooted in the belief that by "leveling the playing field" through some form of governmental assistance, racial socio-economic inequalities and discrimination would come to pass in America.

At the core of contemporary debates over race-conscious programs are concerns by proponents who argue that past and present discriminatory practices warrant such corrective policies whereas opponents argue that these policies simply amount to reverse discrimination. The schism between proponents and opponents has also fallen along racial lines. Researchers have found that racial preferences are widely favored by African Americans but largely opposed by a majority of whites (Schuman, Steeh, Bobo and Krysan 1997; Kinder and Sanders 1996; Smith 1981; Taylor, Sheatsley and Greeley 1978). This racial divide was most recently highlighted with the passage of the 1996 California's Civil Rights Initiative (Proposition 209), designed to end affirmative action programs. While 63 percent of whites voted in favor of the proposition, African Americans opposed it by 74 percent, and Latinos by 76 percent (Fraga and Ramirez 2001).

What accounts for this opinion polarization? Despite the plethora of studies investigating the sources underlying white opposition to race-conscious policies, few studies include the perspective of racial minorities (e.g., Bobo 2000, 1998; Hughes and Tuch 2000; Bobo and Hutchings 1996). The purpose of this study is to go beyond the black-white dichotomy by comparing African American, Latino, Asian American, and white support for job training and educational assistance programs (an opportunity-enhancing policy) and racial preferences in the workplace (an outcome-directed policy). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Beyond Black and White: General Support for Race-Conscious Policies among African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans and Whites
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.