Environmental Voluntary Approaches: The Irish Experience

By Cunningham, James | Irish Journal of Management, January 1, 2004 | Go to article overview

Environmental Voluntary Approaches: The Irish Experience


Cunningham, James, Irish Journal of Management


INTRODUCTION - ENVIRONMENTAL DRIVING FORCES

There is an immediate pressure on all firms, particularly MNCs to meet stringent legal and regulatory controls, with individual executives being held responsible under criminal laws ior firms' environmental damage (Simmons and Cowell, 1993; Vari, 1993). Consequently, as Rondinelli and Vastag note:

. . . the threat of criminal prosecution is not the only force driving companies to develop environmental management systems. Increasingly, customers are reacting negatively to corporate environmental mismanagement, shareholders are abandoning companies caught in environmental crises, and financial institutions are including environmental risks in their assessments of loan requests. (1996: 107)

By correctly measuring and managing its environmental costs, a firm can increase product profitability (Fitzgibbon, 1998).

There are several green driving forces that firms face, including specific disasters, public opinion, credibility pressures, regulatory pressures, consumers, shareholders' internal pressure, legislation, competitive pressures, ethical investments, media interest, supplier pressures, the rising costs of mishaps, government regulators, NGOs, scientific evidence, market pressures and new opportunities (Clark et al., 1094; Fitzgibbon, 1998; Jose, 1996; Hitchens et al., 2000; Maxwell et al., 1997; Peattie and Ratnayaka, 1992; Preston, 2001; Rugman andVerbeke, 1998; Schot and Fischer, 1993).

The leading forces for environmental change come from green consumers, pressure groups, insurance groups and green investors (Azzone and Oertele, 1994). Green consumers have significantly influenced new product introductions, product design, product packaging and advertising approaches (Coddington, 1993; Meffert and Kirchgeorg, 1994; Ottman, 1992). This view is further supported by Preston (2001) who states: "it is becoming increasingly apparent that environmental factors are becoming a purchasing decision differentiator." In addition, growing pressure exerted by regulators and public opinion in shaping firms' responses to environmental issues. Fitzgibbon (1998) refers to these factors as the major "sticks" in getting firms to address environmental issues. The main interest groups in firms' environmental issues include government, employees, suppliers, customers, investors and local communities. In essence, these groups mediate in the process of environmental management and influence the nature of pressures and the response (Williams et al., 1993). The response from policy makers and practitioners to the nature of environmental pressure has been to broaden out the choice of policy instruments for the protection of the environment. This is reflected in the adoption of more innovative policy instruments by national governments. The broadening out of policy instruments from command and control includes market incentive mechanisms and flexible regulations. This is in response to the failure of the market in relation to the environmental protection (Clinch, 2000). One of these innovative policy responses has been voluntary approaches.

VOLUNTARY APPROACHES -THE PRACTITIONER'S RESPONSE

Environmental voluntary approaches as an instrument for environmental management are preferred by industry but greeted with some degree of scepticism hy the environmentalists and other stakeholders (EEA. 1907: 50; Jenkins, 1995). Arguments are made that voluntary approaches are preferred by industry as it buys them time and delays the implementation of rigorous environmental regulations (Bizer, 1999; Bizer et al., 1999). Environmentalists are concerned that voluntary approaches lead to a lessening of environmental protection standards. From a game theoretic analysis perspective, Segerson et al. (1908) and Schmelzer (1990) show that the environmental standards achieved under a voluntary approach may be less than under command-and-control regulations in certain circumstances. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Environmental Voluntary Approaches: The Irish Experience
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.