Distance Education: A Synthesis of Research from Agricultural and Extension Education

By Roberts, T. Grady; Moore, Lori L. et al. | NACTA Journal, March 2005 | Go to article overview

Distance Education: A Synthesis of Research from Agricultural and Extension Education


Roberts, T. Grady, Moore, Lori L., Dyer, James E., NACTA Journal


Abstract

The purpose of this investigation was to synthesize the distance education research from the agricultural and extension education researchers to provide a single source of information for practitioners, administrators, and researchers. The Journal of Agricultural Education, Journal of Extension, Dissertation Abstracts International, and Proceedings from the National Agricultural Education Research Conference/Meeting were used as sources for this study. This was deemed appropriate, as they are the primary outlets for educational researchers in the context of agriculture. The research synthesized in this study was conducted by researchers in agricultural and extension education and examined a variety of agricultural distance education, ranging from technical subjects such as soils, to more social subjects such as education. Research was synthesized into three areas: planning, instruction, and evaluation. In the area of planning, research indicated faculty need training, technical support, administrative support, and incentives. Students' needs were: time to devote to coursework and a variety of delivery methods. In the area of instruction, research indicated that student/instructor and student/student interaction are concerns of both faculty and students. In the area of evaluation, off-campus courses are generally not perceived to be as effective by faculty, while students reported mixed perceptions.

(ProQuest Information and Learning: ... denotes text missing in the original.)

Introduction

Distance education has become commonplace on many university campuses throughout the United States. As of 1998, 54% of all higher education institutions either offered or planned to offer distance education courses (Lewis et al., 2000). Additionally, nearly 10% of all college students in the United States have taken distance education courses, defined in this report as being strictly off-campus, which included video conferencing, internet, videotape and other technologies used when students take courses off-campus (Sikora, 2002). Delivering coursework to students that are off-campus has also become common in Colleges of Agriculture across the country. As a result, researchers have studied many associated areas of agricultural distance education.

Materials and Methods

The purpose of this investigation was to synthesize the agricultural distance education research from the last decade to provide a single source of information for practitioners, administrators, and researchers. Four sources were used to gather data to meet the objectives of this study. They were the Journal of Agricultural Education, Journal of Extension, Dissertation Abstracts International, and Proceedings from the National Agricultural Education Research Conference/Meeting. Relevant research published from 1990 to 2003 was used in this study. In total, 58 articles were examined (Figure 1). Examining distance education holistically, findings were grouped based on relevance to the planning, instruction, or evaluation of distance education.

Results and Discussion

Planning

While planning for distance education, faculty members generally perceived a need for training, technical and administrative support, and incentives. Nti (1997) reported that institutional policy, distance education skills, and a need for assistance all affected faculty interest in using distance education. Born and Miller (1999) found that 40% of the faculty members were not familiar with distance education programs. For distance education diffusion to take place, Murphrey and Dooley (2000) reported that faculty perceived a need for administrative support, training, and incentives. They also found that faculty members expressed a need to expand policies that address incentives, support, training, quality control, careers, and communication. Similarly, Murphy and Terry (1998a; 1998b) reported that lack of time, faculty reward system, and technical support were obstacles to distance education. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Distance Education: A Synthesis of Research from Agricultural and Extension Education
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.