Bridges of Memory: Chicago's First Wave of Black Migration

By Smoot, Pamela A. | Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Spring 2005 | Go to article overview

Bridges of Memory: Chicago's First Wave of Black Migration


Smoot, Pamela A., Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society


Bridges of Memory: Chicago's First Wave of Black Migration. By Timuel D. Black, Jr. (Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2003. Pp. xvi, 616. Cloth, $29.95).

This is a collection of forty three oral history interviews conducted with African Americans born and raised in Chicago and African-American migrants from the rural South, midwestern, and northeastern cities. Using such interviews, Timuel Black seeks to record the individual experiences of these African Americans relative to family life, politics, employment, entertainment, and education. Of equal importance are these same experiences and their relationship to historical periods such as the Great Migration, World Wars I and II, and the manner in which they affected the lives of African Americans in Chicago.

Black was able to skillfully reconstruct and vividly describe the various neighborhoods where African Americans resided and how they transformed the neighborhoods in terms of race and ethnicity, particularly on Chicago's West Side, where there were pockets of African Americans, Greeks, Italians, and Jews. The people have been described as poor, owning homes that were not very nice, with many African Americans residing in storefronts. Robbins and Hyde Park also represent Chicago neighborhoods where African Americans resided and have been described as an "all black town" and one of mixed incomes, respectively. In the process of describing the reconstructed neighborhoods, the interviews reveal the locations and types of black businesses such as bowling alleys, mortuaries, banks, ice cream parlors, dance halls, restaurants, and cosmetic companies and thereby explain their significance to the black community.

Individual experiences of interviewees tell of the racism and discrimination in housing, employment, social services, education, and recreation in various forms. To prevent African Americans, especially southern black migrants to Chicago, from moving into white neighborhoods, restrictive covenants were enacted; black police officers, who were called "temporaries," were confined to certain districts; and other African Americans, particularly those in service positions, were forced to work overtime without pay, use segregated restrooms, and were subjected to dangerous tasks. In the discussion on education, readers are reminded of Chicago's tracking system where most African-American students were placed in vocational tracks and white students, in academic tracks; and yet, many African-American students successfully completed college. This very important study also deals with segregation in public places, such as movie theaters, and the reactions of African Americans to segregationist policies. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Bridges of Memory: Chicago's First Wave of Black Migration
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.