Bystander Approaches: Empowering Students to Model Ethical Sexual Behavior

By Lynch, Annette; Fleming, Wm Michael | Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, September 2005 | Go to article overview

Bystander Approaches: Empowering Students to Model Ethical Sexual Behavior


Lynch, Annette, Fleming, Wm Michael, Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences


Sexual violence on college campuses is well documented. Prevention education has emerged as an alternative to victimand perpetrator-oriented approaches used in the past. One sexual violence prevention education approach focuses on educating and empowering the bystander to become a point of ethical intervention. In this model, bystanders to sexual violence become active agents working to move their communities toward ethical and respectful versions of sexual behavior. The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate two bystander intervention models. Results indicate the efficacy of the bystander approach as a prevention strategy.

Sexual violence on college campuses is well documented, with current research indicating that 2.8% of female students experience rape or attempted rape during any given academic year (Fisher, Cullen, & Turner, 2000), and approximately 50% of female college students reporting some form of unwanted sexual behavior (Abbey, Ross, & McDuffie, 1996; Himelein, 1995; Koss, Gidcyz, & Wisniewski, 1987; Synovitz & Byrne, 1998). Two surveys conducted on the University of Northern Iowa (UNI) campus showed that approximately 3.8% of female students have experienced forced sexual intercourse while attending the university. National figures indicate that within a lifetime one in five women report experiencing sexual violence (Koss & Harvey, 1991); in Iowa the estimate is one in eight (Kilpatrick & Ruggiero, 2004). In the new millennium, prevention education, with goals of transforming cultural values and norms, has emerged as an alternative to more victimand perpetrator-oriented approaches used in the rape crisis movement of the 20th century (Banyard, Plante, & Moynihand, 2004).

One component of a number of current sexual violence prevention education programs is an emphasis on educating and empowering the bystander to become a point of ethical intervention within the community (Fabiano, Perkins, & Berkowitz, 2004). Ethical intervention involves engaging in behavior that follows a moral code and evaluating actions on the basis of a broader cultural context. The degree to which individuals intervene in contexts of sexual misconduct becomes a moral issue. With this model, the focus shifts beyond the victim and perpetrator to the people and culture that surround and allow the behavior to occur. The model requires that bystanders to sexual violence become active agents of transformation, moving the culture toward ethical and respectful versions of sexual behavior.

This study was designed to develop and evaluate two bystander intervention models-one focused on increasing the role that men play in decreasing violence against women, and the other using interactive theatre to empower and educate students during the fall orientation program.

CRITICAL RESEARCH AND BYSTANDER BEHAVIOR

Research assessing the success of gender-based violence prevention programs indicates that traditional information-only based prevention programs are not successful in changing the system or culture that supports the violence (Banyard et al., 2004). An ecological approach that seeks to transform social norms is increasingly supported (Berkowitz, 2003). According to Swift and Ryan-Fin "prevention approaches must go beyond changing individuals to changing the system that creates and maintains sexual abuse" (1995, p. 20). They argued that increasing traditional prevention education efforts focused primarily on providing information to students will not be effective unless gender ideology and related male and female gender constructions are challenged.

Attitudes and behaviors of male and female college students captured in national survey data indicate the correlation of gender ideology to the current high rates of gender violence (Fisher et al., 2000). Research with male students indicates that male perpetrators are often not self- or peer-identified as rapists, and in many instances feel validated for the behavior by normative measures of masculinity that define such behavior as sexual conquest (Lisak & Roth, 1990; Sanday, 1996). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Bystander Approaches: Empowering Students to Model Ethical Sexual Behavior
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.