Foreign Investment in Developing Countries
Nandy, Amarendu, Journal of Southeast Asian Economies
Foreign Investment in Developing Countries. Edited by H. S. Kehal. Hampshire and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. Pp. 261.
This book is an edited volume consisting of twelve diverse chapters that focuses on the theoretical, empirical, and policy issues of attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) in developing countries. While the first two chapters focus more on the theoretical aspects of FDI and its determinants, the remaining chapters are more empirical in focus and constitute country studies on the determinants of FDI or the impact of FDI on their economies. Some of these studies focus on the experience of the ASEAN countries.
Among the empirical studies, Chapters 3 and 4 focus on China, which attracted the largest share of world FDI among the developing countries. These two chapters address two very interesting questions: (1) the impact of inward FDI on the Chinese economy and its determinants; and (2) how to maximize benefits from FDI and minimize the risks associated with it, and the lessons that can be learnt from China's experience. The analysis holds important implications for other developing countries that are too much FDI-dependent for their growth prospects and need to strike a balance between technology transfers and domestic market protection.
The next two chapters involve studies on the Indian economy, which is emerging as a favourable investment destination, after a decade of economic reforms that has integrated it further with the global economy. Chapter 5 does not specifically focus on FDI but analyses the ways to enhance foreign investment flows in a broader sense. Chapter 6 specifically deals with FDI and the resource gap in India. It argues that FDI has not played a significant role in enhancing the profitability and efficiency of Indian firms even after a decade, and identifies the important constraints that deter the flows of FDI into India, including the policy environment for investment. This chapter comes out with a very interesting fact that after liberalization of the economy, Indian FDI and non-FDI companies seem to be competing against each other via larger advertisement expenditure than R&D expenditure or selling commission, indicating that unlike China, most of the FDI in India appears to be market oriented, with little focus on R&D.
Chapters 7 and 8 then undertake empirical studies on ASEAN economies, viz. Indonesia and Malaysia, with the former specifically focusing on bilateral FDI flows from the EU. These two chapters undertake an econometric exercise of the determinants of FDI flows in each of them, and observe that while these countries have been generally successful in attracting FDI for their growth prospects, they face increasing competition from other developing countries, and need to undertake important policy changes to continue to be competitive in attracting global FDI.
Chapter 9 by Sadhana Srivastava and Ramkishen S. Rajan, by far the longest and one of the most interesting chapters of this book, makes an important contribution to the policy discussion on the impact of China's economic rise on trade and FDI flows in ASEAN and India. …