Latent Models of Family Processes in African American Families: Relationships to Child Competence, Achievement, and Problem Behavior
Smith, Emilie Phillips, Prinz, Ronald J., Dumas, Jean E., Laughlin, James, Journal of Marriage and Family
This study explored the assessment of family processes for a sample of African American kindergarten children, parents, and teachers involved in the EARLY ALLIANCE prevention trial. Using modified versions of the Family Assessment Measure, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales, the Family Beliefs Inventory, and the Deviant Beliefs measure, internal consistency analyses along with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided empirical support for a Cohesion factor (cohesion and communication), a Structure factor (support and organization), a Beliefs factor (on family purpose and child development), and a Deviant Beliefs factor. Regression analyses examined the relationship of these measures of family processes to child social and academic competence, problem behavior, and early reading achievement. Family Structure (support
and organization) was consistently related to parent- and teacher-reported competence and behavioral outcomes, providing support for this construct as an important aspect of family process. Family Cohesion and communication, along with Beliefs, were also related to youth competence and behavior. None of the family process variables added a unique contribution to the influence upon achievement for these kindergarten children beyond the role of parental education and income. This work begins to examine specific dimensions of family processes and their relationships to important adaptive and less adaptive child outcomes. Other dimensions may be identified and examined in future research with families of color.
Key Words: academic achievement, African American, behavior problems, family relations, minority groups, parentchild relations, social skills.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the support for this work provided through Grant MH/DA54171, cofunded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (U.S. Department of Justice), and Grant U81/CCU413401, funded by the National Center on Injury Prevention at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Achenbach, T. M. (1999). The Child Behavior Checklist and related intruments. In M. E. Maruish (Ed.), The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcomes (2nd ed., pp. 429-466). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Blaske, D. M., Borduin, C. M., Henggeler, S. W., & Mann, B. J. (1989). Individual, family and peer characteristics of adolescent sex offenders and assaultive offenders. Developmental Psychology, 25, 846-855.
Bloom, B. L. (1985). A factor analysis of self-report measures of family functioning. Family Process, 24, 225-239.
Chilman, C. S. (1993). Hispanic families in the United States: Research perspectives. In H. P. McAdoo (Ed.), Family ethnicity: Strength in diversity (pp. 141-163). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Coll, C. G., Crnic, K., Lamberty, G., Wasi, B, H., Jenkins, R., Garcia, H. V., & McAdoo, 14. P (1996). An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. Child Development, 67, 1891-1914.
Coughlin, C., & Vuchinich, S. (1996). Family experience in preadolescence and the development of male delinquency. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58, 491-501.
Dishion, T. J., Patterson, G. R., Stoolmiller, M., & Skinner, M. L. (1991). Family, school, and behavioral antecedents to early adolescent involvement with antisocial peers. Developmental Psychology, 27, 172180.
Dodge, K A. (1986). A social information-processing model of social competence in children. In M. Perlmutter (Ed.), Minnesota symposium on child psychology (Vol. 19, pp. 77-125). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Dumas, J. E., Blechman, E. A., & Prinz, R. J. …