Turkey -- Turkey and the Holocaust: Turkey's Role in Rescuing Turkish and European Jewry from Nazi Persecution, 1933-1945 by Stanford J. Shaw

By Zurcher, Erik J. | The Middle East Journal, Autumn 1995 | Go to article overview

Turkey -- Turkey and the Holocaust: Turkey's Role in Rescuing Turkish and European Jewry from Nazi Persecution, 1933-1945 by Stanford J. Shaw


Zurcher, Erik J., The Middle East Journal


Turkey and the Holocaust: Turkey's Role in Rescuing Turkish and European Jewry from Nazi Persecution, 1933-1945, by Stanford J. Shaw. New York: New York University Press, 1993. xiii + 305 pages. Bibl. to p. 330. Appends. to p. 424. $50.

This new book by Stanford Shaw consists of two separate studies. The larger one (of over 200 pages) is about the role played by the Turkish diplomatic service in saving Turkish Jews in occupied France, and in the puppet state of Vichy. The other is a much smaller one (of about 50 pages) on the attempts by Jewish organizations based in Turkey to save Jews from Eastern Europe and the Balkans. In the first part, titled "Turkey's role in rescuing Jews from the Nazis," Shaw relates how the Turkish government and its representatives in France consistently opposed German and French persecution of Jews with Turkish citizenship. The position of the Turkish diplomats was that since Turkish law did not allow discrimination on the basis of creed or race, such discrimination of its citizens in a foreign country was also unacceptable. In taking up this position, Turkey went further than most countries, which accepted that in German-occupied Europe, and in the German vassal states, the law of the land should prevail. The Turkish diplomats often worked quickly and managed to intervene successfully. If the Jews concerned could be shown to have valid Turkish citizenship papers, they were usually surrendered to the Turkish authorities on condition that they be repatriated to Turkey forthwith.

Although the number of people concerned was small within the context of the holocaust as a whole, or even of the Jews of France, it was still much larger than is generally known. According to Shaw, there lived in France about 10,000 Turkish Jews (over 3,000 in the Paris region alone), most of whom had migrated to France after World War I. There was also a significant group of people of Turkish-Jewish extraction, who had been naturalized as French citizens. When the situation of the Jews in France grew rapidly worse, many of these tried to recover their Turkish nationality. After initial hesitation, the Turkish consuls in France often offered assistance to these people. Shaw does not specify how many people were saved by repatriation to Turkey, but one can infer that the number probably lay somewhere between 2,000 and 3,000.

Shaw has documented his story extensively. Indeed, about half of the text consists of reproduced documents (in translation). While over 90 percent of the text deals with the situation in France, there is a five-page passage at the end on "Turkish assistance to the Jews of Greece under Nazi occupation." Here Shaw's chronology seems to be shaky. He states that "after Turkey joined the Allies ..., German planes bombed the Turkish consulate

in Rhodes

" (p. 253). "During the next six months the forty-two Jewish Turks ... were subjected to constant harrassment by the Gestapo" (p. 254), but "finally early in January 1945

the German commander

ordered the remaining Jews to go to Turkey" (p. 254). Since Turkey declared war on Germany only on 23 February 1945 and since the war ended slightly over two months later, Shaw's account would appear to be inaccurate.

The second; part of the book, titled "Istanbul activities in rescuing European Jews from the Nazis," deals with the much better known story of how Jewish (Zionist) organizations based in Istanbul tried to save people by bringing them out of Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe and transferring them to Palestine. While Turkey allowed immigration and settlement of European Jews only "if their employment was needed by the departments and institutions of Turkey" or "if their economic utility was recognised by the authorities" (p. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Turkey -- Turkey and the Holocaust: Turkey's Role in Rescuing Turkish and European Jewry from Nazi Persecution, 1933-1945 by Stanford J. Shaw
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.