Feminist Pscyology in Canada: Early Days

By Pyke, Sandra W. | Canadian Psychology, November 2001 | Go to article overview

Feminist Pscyology in Canada: Early Days

Pyke, Sandra W., Canadian Psychology


Several of the events that marked the origins of feminist psychology in Canada are discussed in this paper beginning with an account of the "Underground Symposium" which took place in Montreal in 1972. Four other influential events from the early days are described - the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) Task Force on the Status of Women in Canadian Psychology, the founding of the CPA Interest Group on Women and Psychology in 1976, the implementation of an Institute on Women and Psychology in 1978, and the establishment of the cpA Status of Women Committee. Parallels with comparable events in the American Psychological Association are identified. The paper concludes with a forecast of the future of the psychology of women as a specialization within the discipline.

In this paper I discuss some of the events that marked the beginnings of feminist psychology in Canada - for example, the Underground Symposium, the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) Task Force on the Status of Women in Canadian Psychology, the founding of the CPA Interest Group on Women and Psychology, the implementation of an Institute on Women and Psychology, and the establishment of the CPA Status of Women Committee. Analogous structures and events within the American Psychological Association (APA) are described. The paper concludes with some personal speculations about the future of feminist psychology. A paper by Pyke and Greenglass (1997), presented at the International Congress of Psychology in Montreal in 1996, also explored much of this early history. From a somewhat different perspective, Stark (2000) also discussed certain aspects of the development in Canada of women's historic involvement in and contributions to the discipline.

Psychology emerged as a separate and distinct discipline in Canada in the 1920s with the establishment of autonomous departments at the University of Toronto and McGill University (de la Cour, 1987; Wright & Myers, 1982). It has been reported that women were well represented in the early days both in the student body and among faculty (de la Cour, 1987). However, the absolute numbers were very low. Mary Wright (1974) estimates that in 1938, there were only about 53 psychologists in the whole country, of which perhaps no more than six or seven were women.

The Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) was founded in 1939 (Ferguson, 1992). Of the 38 founding members (Adair, Paivio, & Ritchie, 1996), only 6 (17%) were women (de la Cour, 1987). This is in marked contract to the robust membership of 3,100 in APA in 1940 (Hogan & Sexton, 1991). It has been widely believed and generally accepted that the organization was created so psychologists might contribute more effectively to the war effort (Ferguson, 1992; Vipond & Richert, 1977; Wright, 1974; Wright & Myers, 1982). However, Kathy Dzinas (1997), on the basis of a rigorous re-examination of the relevant literature and documentation, argues that there is no evidentiary support for these claims. Regardless of the motivation for establishing CPA, it seems clear that a primary focus of the fledgling organization was directed toward activities relevant to the war effort such as the selection and training of military personnel. Interestingly enough, there is little mention of the involvement of women psychologists in most accounts of these events. Nevertheless, women did contribute significantly through their provision of services relevant to working mothers and their children. The training of qualified personnel to staff day care centres for the children of women working in factories was one such significant and important contribution (de la Cour, 1987; Wright, 1974). Among the stimuli for the founding of the National Council of Women Psychologists in the United States was the unwillingness of APA to appoint women to their Emergency Committee - a committee intended to coordinate the activities of psychologists in the event of American involvement in World War II (Walsh, 1985).

Mary Wright, who was a graduate student at the University of Toronto during the war, tells us that at that time equality of the sexes was taken for granted and all students, regardless of gender, were treated alike (Wright, 1992). de la Cour supports Wright's contention when she says, "Far from occupying a marginal existence, Toronto's women psychologists were a major and vital component of the profession from 1920 to 1945" (p. 44). What were the experiences of these pioneering women? Wright (1992) provides biographical notes on 10 women who obtained Ph Ds from the University of Toronto between 1936 and 1949, a most accomplished and distinguished group. A comparison of the careers of seven women and seven male academics from this group of graduates reveals that they did not differ in academic rank; six in each group attained full professor status. However, although the women outperformed the men in terms of scholarship, men held more senior academic administrative posts and also more positions of leadership in the wider psychological community. These data also suggest that for these women at least, marriage and child rearing were incompatible with a successful academic career. All seven of the male academics were married, remained married, and had children. In contrast, only one of the seven female academics had a marriage with children that endured (Wright, 1992). Indeed, Wright observes, "it was after the breakdown of their marriages that the careers of the divorced (Ainsworth, Arnold) and widowed (Weckler) women 'took off'" (p. 679). Scarborough and Furumoto (1987) also comment on the relatively low marriage rate among college-educated women and illustrate the negative impact of marriage and children on women's careers, drawing on the experiences of Ethel Puffer Howes (1872-1950).

In contrast to some of their earlier counterparts in the United States, for example, Mary Whiton Calkins, Helen Thompson Woolley, Leta Hollingworth, Mary Putnam Jacobi, and Mary Bissell (Denmark & Fernandez, 1993; Kimball, 1995; Sheilds, 1982), our Canadian foremothers did not engage in research or practice that addressed stereotypic conceptions of women. A possible exception is Leola Neal who was Dean of Women at the University of Western Ontario from 1946 to 1977 and responsible for the provision of counselling services for women. Other women psychologists studied infant-mother attachment, memory and the brain, deinstitutionalized psychiatric patients, and developmental psychology (Wright, 1992).

In the postwar period, women's participation rate suffered a sharp decline (de la Cour, 1987). And, it was not until 1968 that cra elected its first woman president, Mary Wright. APA, which was founded in 1892, exhibited similar reluctance to entrust its highest office to a woman but took only 13 years to overcome its hesitancy (Mary Whiton Calkins was elected president in 1905) as opposed to the 30-year hiatus in CPA. However, in the first 85 years of its existence, there were only four women presidents of APA (Hilgard, 1978) as compared with a total of seven in CPA's 62-year life span.

Underground Symposium

In 1970, although about a quarter of the CPA members were women (Pyke, 1992), the neglect of women psychologists and/or feminist researchers was normative within CPA and the discipline at large. This is perhaps not surprising given the sociopolitical climate of the time. The findings of the Royal Commission on the Status of Women (1970) documented widespread marginalization of and discrimination against women. Certainly, evidence of such marginalization was not hard to find within CPA. In the three decades, from its inception to 1970, of the 78 different individuals who served as officers of CPA, only 10% were women, a proportion considerably below their representation in the Association. To illustrate, in 1939, 17% of the founding members of the Association were women (de la Cour, 1987); in 1942, 16% of the members were women (Bulletin of the Canadian Psychological Association, 1942); in 1960, 26% of the members were women (Layer, 1960); in 1966, 29% of the members were women ("Survey of members," 1966, p. 1). Shortly after the Royal Commission report was released, women across the country began to mobilize in large numbers, calling for action and social change (McCormack, 1997; Ricks, Matheson, & Pyke, 1972). Unfortunately, the gatekeepers of Canadian psychology proved to be ignorant of, or disinterested in, or otherwise immune to new societal trends acknowledging women. Several feminist psychologists at York University discovered that we had all had convention submissions rejected, sometimes with the rationale that these topics did not fit into the established framework for the convention. That is, there seemed to be a problem in determining which paper session would be appropriate. Clever strategists that we were, we decided to circumvent this problem or objection by presenting a symposium rather than submitting independent papers. To further strengthen our submission by adding a dash of political correctness, we asked the then-president of CPA, Virginia Douglas (the second woman president) to be our discussant. So, a group of six graduate students and untenured faculty (Ann Berens, Esther Greenglass, Sandra Pyke, Frances Ricks, Mary Stewart, and Jean Turner-Simmons) organized a symposium. The 1972 Program Committee, in its wisdom, rejected the symposium proposal that was entitled, "On women, by women" (Pyke & Stark-- Adamec, 1981).

Only temporarily deterred by this rejection, we decided to present our work independently and booked a meeting room in the convention hotel. Subsequently, I received a call from the hotel management reneging on the room booking. I was told that they had been pressured by the Association to refuse us access to space in the convention hotel. This maneuver served only to strengthen our resolve and we booked a meeting room in a hotel adjacent to the convention site. Donations from colleagues helped to cover the room rental. A relatively short underground pedestrian thoroughfare connected the two hotels, hence the event came to be known as the "Underground Symposium."

Leaflets advertising the renegade symposium were distributed to convention delegates by symposiasts and their supporters. The event attracted huge interest among the rank and file and was so well attended that there was standing room only for many of the 200 or so people in the audience. The event also received extensive press coverage in The Montreal Star (Vineberg, 1972). The research presented in the symposium, which included topics such as sex stereotypes in children's literature, fear of success, and sex bias in social psychology journals, was summarized by Norma Bowen (1973) in an issue of the Ontario Psychologist, guest edited by Esther Greenglass.

Task Force on the Status of Women in Canadian Psychology

The next significant event in the formal history of feminist psychology in Canada was the establishment of a Task Force on the Status of Women in Canadian Psychology. Mary Wright, Honorary President of the Association at the time, suggested that such an action might be an appropriate response of the CPA Board to the declaration of 1975 as International Women's Year by the United Nations. She was designated Honorary Chairperson of the Task Force. A comparable task force had been formed within the APA in 1971, in response, at least in part, to demonstrations of the Association of Women in Psychology at the 1969 and 1970 APA conventions protesting discriminatory employment practices (Walsh, 1985).

Barbara Wand, who became the first woman registrar of the College of Psychologists of Ontario, (known at that time as the Ontario Board of Examiners in Psychology) chaired the CPA Task Force and her first order of business was to obtain financial support for the work for the group. Funding was obtained from the Department of National Health and Welfare through a special grant for International Women's Year. In addition to Drs. Wand and Wright, other members of the Task Force were Elinor Bur-well, Virginia Carver, Olga Favreau, Vicky Gray, Roger Myers, Sandra Pyke, and Lorette Woolsey. Of the nine members, three are now deceased, Elinor Burwell, Vicky Gray, and Roger Myers.

The Task Force addressed four major issues: 1) the status of women within the discipline; 2) the education and training of women in psychology; 3) sex bias in psychological research; and 4) psychological services for women. Background papers on these topics were prepared and relevant recommendations generated. In April 1976, the Task Force presented its report, with almost 100 recommendations, to the cPA Board of Directors. In January 1977, the report in its entirety (i.e., with the supporting papers included) was published in a special issue of the Canadian Psychological Review (Wand, 1977). This publication was sent to all members of the Association and became the blueprint for the design of future reforms.

Interest Group on Women and Psychology (IGWAP)

Among the recommendations of the Task Force was a proposal that a special interest group dealing with the psychology of women be formed. In June at the 1976 CPA Convention in Toronto, the Task Force organized a meeting to explore the creation of such an interest group. This inaugural meeting was attended by about 27 people (Pyke, 1976). The comparable event within Ar.PA was the founding of Division 35 in 1973, established after four years of protest and pressure (Mednick & Urbanski, 1991; Walsh, 1985). In contrast to the APA experience, there was no opposition or resistance by CPA to the formation of IGWAP, perhaps in part because the parent organization regarded these interest groups as quite informal (i.e., the groups had no entitlements and CPA accepted no responsibility or obligation for the provision of services).

There seemed to be general support for establishing such an interest group but issues such as a name for the group, the appropriate administrative structure, and whether to admit male members, were subject to some debate. In the end it was decided that any psychologist was welcome to affiliate with the Interest Group, including those not members of CPA, and so the name "Women and Psychology" was chosen as the most inclusive title. I agreed to serve as the coordinator and Elinor Burwell, Virginia Carver, and Sally Luce were co-opted to work on a newsletter for the Interest Group. In addition, a small steering committee was struck. Dues were set at $2 for students and $5 for nonstudents.

At the organizational meeting, some general objectives of the Interest Group were specified as follows: 1) To promote the professional development of women psychologists; 2) To educate psychologists about women and psychology; and 3) To provide support for women psychologists. A number of more specific actions or functions of the group, aimed at achieving these ends were suggested including: developing broad membership base; determining task priorities; monitoring the implementation of Task Force recommendations; developing and maintaining links with regional organizations of women psychologists; promoting conference submissions; organizing an Institute; developing a newsletter; publicizing information on the psychology of women (e.g., courses); ensuring the publication of the Task Force report. Virtually all of these actions were or have been successfully implemented.

Along with a letter I wrote to members in July1976 (Pyke, 1976a), I provided some notes of the proceedings of the founding meeting, a membership list and a copy of the recommendations of the Task Force. In this initial letter to members, I also reported that we had a bank balance of $84. By mid-November, we were up to 40 members, the first issue of the newsletter was published, and the bank balance had reached the dizzying heights of $178.85. At an informal meeting in December, the logo which still appears on the SWAP newsletter was suggested and adopted, and we had some official stationery printed.

In the annual report prepared in May 1977 for presentation to the membership at the CPA convention in Vancouver, I reported that we had 66 members and a robust financial base of $258.85. Compare this to the current membership of 143 (Newsletter of the cPA Section on Women and Psychology, 2001) and total cash and assets of $6,650.21 (Stuckless, 2001). Frances Ricks chaired this meeting of the Interest Group with 21 people attending and Cannie Stark became its second coordinator. Provincial representatives were determined at the meeting as well as a Graduate Student Representative. Subsequent developments have included the institution of travel bursaries for students, an award for the best paper submitted by a student to the CPA Annual Convention which advances psychological knowledge about issues of particular concern to women, the Distinguished Member Award, and most recently, the establishment of a status of women committee.

Interest groups proliferated over the next several years and in 1980 or thereabouts, a restructuring of their status was undertaken by the CPA Board. All CPA interest groups were retitled as sections and so IGWAP became SWAP, the Section on Women and Psychology. As part of this organizational change in the status of interest groups, a member of the Board of Directors was assigned the Sections portfolio. Sections were provided with program time at the annual convention and with membership services by CPA. In effect, they became integrated as a formal component of the CPA structure.

Institute on Women and Psychology

One of the innovative initiatives of Dr. Stark during her two-year tenure as coordinator was the creation of the Institute on Women and Psychology, a one-day preconvention conference focused on the presentation and discussion of research and practice issues relevant to women. Proceedings of the first Institute, which took place in 1978 in Ottawa, appeared in a book edited by Dr. Stark (Stark-Adamec, 1980). Revenue from the book was donated to the Section. Papers presented at the 1980 and 1981 Institutes have been published in special issues of the International Journal of Women Studies, edited by Paula Caplan (1985). Abstracts of the 1987, 1988, and 1989 Institute papers appear in the Newsletter of theCPA Section on Women and Psychology (1988, 1989a, b) and a text edited by Gallivan, Crozier, and Lalande (1994) contains papers delivered at the 1991 Institute. More recently, institutes were held in Halifax in 1999 and Ottawa in 2000. For the first time in Canada, feminist psychologists had access to a legitimate largescale public forum totally focused on psychology of women content.

CPA Status of Women Committee

Another parallel to developments within APA is the CPA Status of Women Committee. Just as the APA Task Force recommended the establishment of a permanent committee on women's issues within APA (Walsh, 1985) so too did the CPA Task Force urge the appointment of a person to oversee implementation of its recommendations. As I noted earlier, the CPA Task Force on the Status of Women in Canadian Psychology presented its report to the CPA Board of Directors in April 1976. The Board of Directors set up an ad hoc committee to review the report and to develop proposals concerning the implementation of the recommendations proposed in the report. The ad hoc committee, consisting of Ray Berry, Vivian Renner, and Joan Foley, made a number of recommendations related to implementation that the Board of Directors subsequently approved. These recommendations essentially suggested the establishment of a whole series of subcommittees to deal with the various sections of the report, each of which would then suggest appropriate implementation procedures. Overseeing all these subcommittees, a coordinating committee was proposed and approved by the CPA Board of Directors. Members of this committee included Vivian Renner, Barbara Wand, Chair of the Task Force, Joan Foley, who was a member of the ad hoc committee, Jean Pettifor, Park Davidson, past president of CPA, Ray Berry, then president of CPA in an ex officio capacity, and myself as coordinator of the CPA Interest Group. I expressed concern, as did Jean Pettifor, about the inordinate delay in implementing Task Force recommendations; at this point 10 months had passed with only one recommendation implemented, that of establishing an Interest Group, and this action was engineered by members of the Task Force itself.

In 1977, I was elected to the CPA Board of Directors as was Elinor Ames. My success in this election was a direct result of the support of the community of women psychologists - clear evidence of the importance of the establishment of networks. I was invited to chair the Convention Committee while Dr. Ames was the Board's choice to chair the Coordinating Committee (subsequently retitled the Status of Women Committee and referred to by some as the Committee on Broad Issues). This appointment was somewhat contentious outside the Board; indeed, one member of the Committee, Vivian Renner, resigned as a consequence (Getz, 1996). However, the Committee could not have had a more effective Chair. Not only was Dr. Ames totally committed to the task, she was a skilled diplomat who handled both camps (feminists and nonfeminists alike) with apparent ease. She was absolutely relentless in pursuing the implementation of the Task Force recommendations, and the collectivity of women psychologists could not have had a better advocate.

Elinor Ames chaired this committee for three years. Under her leadership, a number of extremely important legislative changes and changes in organizational structure were introduced that helped to ensure the increased representation of women on editorial boards, as officers of the Association, on Committees of the Board, and among Fellows of CPA (Ames, 1981). She was also instrumental in fostering research on the status of women, which although documenting the lower salaries of women psychologists (Kalin & Grant, 1981) and their underrepresentation among the faculty in psychology departments (Ricks, Pyke, Ames, Parry, & Duncan, 1980), revealed no discrimination in graduate admission policies and practices or in provision of financial aid to graduate students (Ricks et al., 1980; Williams, Zabrack, & Harrison, 1980).

Under the auspices of the Committee, Jean Pettifor and her colleagues, Lorna Cammaert and Carolyn Larsen, prepared a set of guidelines for therapy and counselling with women clients, which was adopted by the Board of Directors in 1980 (Canadian Psychological Association, 1980). Then in 1984, the Association published Therapy and Counselling with Women: A Handbook of Educational Material and in 1989 the CPA Board of Directors adopted a brochure dealing with the identification of sexist therapists. Attention to these issues was also occurring within APA with the establishment of the Task Force on Sex Bias and Sex-Role Stereotyping in 1975. With respect to research, the Committee generated a set of guidelines for the conduct of nonsexist research that was approved and endorsed by the CPA Board of Directors in 1983 (Stark-Adamec & Kimball, 1984). Again, comparable activities were under-way within APA (Denmark, Russo, Frieze, & Sechzer, 1988).

Community Development and Decline

Let me conclude by summarizing what I see as the most important consequence deriving from these first five key events in the evolution of the psychology of women or feminist psychology in Canada. In less than a decade, a marginalized group and an unacknowledged, sometimes ridiculed, field of study had achieved legitimization, at least within the confines of CPA. Indeed, in 1981, the Association adopted a policy statement recognizing that courses in and research on the psychology of women constitute a legitimate component of the discipline of psychology.

A critical result or byproduct of these early events was the creation, not of a collectivity of women, but of a community of women - a community developed by sharing experiences and providing support; a community that then led to the initiation of collective, effective action as well as support for feminist scholarship and clinical practice.

How does/did the creation of a community empower women? The contacts and connections among women that these structures fostered facilitated consciousness-raising, a heightened awareness of the myriad forms of sexism and their debilitating effects. A corollary outcome was the increasingly ubiquitous sense that sexism is not appropriate and not to be tolerated. Support of the community legitimized consideration of alternate organizational/ administrative structures and models, types of research questions, modes of analysis, and standards of practice. These organizational structures constituted an identifiable entity to which more and more women were attracted. Finally, the existence of the community, an "old girl's network" if you like, provides collective support for the implementation of reforms and proactive actions. As evidence of the effectiveness of the community, witness the startling success of women presidential candidates in the eighties and nineties within CPA - Vaira Vikis-Freibergs in 1981 (the third woman president of CPA, now president of the country of Latvia), Sandra Pyke in '82, Elinor Ames in '85, Cannie Stark in 1992, and Jean Pettifor in 1995 (Pyke & Greenglass, 1997), all connected in some way or other to one or more of the organizational structures described. Similarly in APA, at least four women fellows of Division 35 have served as president of the Association - Florence Denmark in 1980, Janet Spence in 1984, Bonnie Strickland in 1987, and Norine Johnson in 2001. Further evidence of the vitality of the psychology of women field was the burgeoning body of relevant research produced by Canadian psychologists as described by Pyke and Stark-Adamec (1981) in their review.

After the stunning successes of the '70s and early '80s, an environmental scan in the '90s is less reassuring. As I don my futurist hat, one of the concerns I have relates to the potential decline in the strength and commitment of the community. In 1990, SWAP with a membership of 268, was one of the largest of CPA's 26 Sections (Pyke, 1992). A decade later, the membership has almost halved, down to 143. Of course, this decline might be in part a function of economics. Graduate students, faced with increasing tuition costs may be less able to participate and institutions employing psychologists have decreased their support for memberships and conference attendance. Another possible explanation relates to the increase in the number of organizations relevant to women psychologists. For example, the Canadian Women's Studies Association, the Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women, the Senior Women Academic Administrators of Canada, and the Humanities and Social Science Federation of Canada have all attracted women psychologists as members and officers. Other factors such as the increased emphasis on fields of psychology associated with information technology and/or the concentration of women in clinical work and private practice may also result in fewer SWAP memberships. It should be remembered however, that this decline is not reflected in the general CPA membership figures.

In addition to the decline in SWAP membership, however, is the demise of the CPA Status of Women Committee in 1996. I suppose that some might argue that this simply reflects the fact that equality and equity have been achieved and there is no further need for a vigilant and vibrant community of women psychologists. Wrong! Christine Storm's unsuccessful attempt to introduce a psychology of women course at Mount Allison University in 1998/99 is a case in point. Subsequently in 1999, she became department head and undertook revision of the entire psychology curriculum. Included among a number of new courses was the previously contentious psychology of women course. The total curriculum was approved including the psychology of women entry (Christine Storm, personal communication, September 17, 2000). The fact that until this year I was the only woman chair of the 20 departments in the Faculties of Arts and Pure and Applied Science at York University speaks volumes. Certainly the misogynist orientation of the DSM IV should give us pause (Caplan, 1991; Caplan, McCurdy-- Myers, & Gans, 1992) along with evidence of continuing chilly climates for women in academe (Janz & Pyke, 2000; Seagram, Gould, & Pyke, 1998). And the fact that stereotypes are just as alive and well in contemporary children's literature as they were in 1971 is cause for concern (King, Pyke, & Keating, 1995; Pyke, 1976b).

In a questionnaire survey of members of SWAP in 1997, respondents were asked to share their predictions about the future of the Canadian psychology of women field (Fiksenbaum, Goldstein, Pyke, Greenglass, & Boatswain, 1998). A fair proportion of respondents (41%) expressed negative or pessimistic views. Difficult economic conditions, resurgence of the conservative, political right ideology, and the backlash phenomenon were seen as contributing to bleak times ahead. More optimistic respondents commented on the increased interest in the field, the increase in women students and faculty, the inclusion of psychology of women and feminist issues in mainstream psychology, and the implementation of more egalitarian practices.

Although we have made substantial progress, we clearly still have a long way to go. Depending on your point of view, the cup is half full or half empty. As participants in the Fiksenbaum et al. (1997) study observed, to advance feminist psychology and/or the psychology of women field, there is " the need to maintain vigilance, the need to expand feminist courses and feminist programs, and the need to stand up and be counted (to be political, to publish, and to publicize)" (p. 11). Currently, there is a revolution of sorts within feminism as third-wave feminists are openly and legitimately critical of the narrowness of earlier variants while members of the second wave comment on ingratitude and lack of understanding. Pinterics (2001) regards this tension between the old and the new positively as potentially leading to "a dialectic process which could result in a much stronger, more diverse conceptualization of the boundaries of feminism, and of feminist practice" (p. 20). Whether or not these meta themes are highly visible in the Canadian psychology of women arena, we must make concerted efforts to bring more of our younger colleagues into the community for their participation is critical if the gains of the past are to be maintained, if the field is to flourish, and if equity is to be ultimately achieved. The author would like to thank the reviewers of this article and the editors for their helpful feedback. I would also like to acknowledge the assistance of the CPA archivist, Dr. K. Dzinas, for her invaluable assistance in providing membership information.

Correspondence may be addressed to Sandra W. Pyke, Department of Psychology at York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M3J 1P3 (Tel: (416) 736-5115; Fax: (416) 736-5814; e-mail: spyke@yorku.ca).


On aborde dans le present article plusieurs evenements qui ont marque les debuts de la psychologie feministe au Canada, dont le tout premier: un symposium << clandestin >> qui a eu lieu A Montreal en 1972. On enonce ensuite quatre evenements importants qui ont marque les premieres heures de la psychologie feministe un groupe de travail sur la place des femmes au sein de la psychologie canadienne forme par la Societe canadienne de psychologie (SCP), la formation en 1976 d'un groupe d'interet sur les femmes et la psychologie, la creation en 1978 d'un institut sur les femmes et la psychologie et la mise sur pied du Comite de la condition feminine de la SCP. On met en evidence certains paralleles entre des evenements semblables qui ont marque l'histoire de l'American Psychological Association. A la fin de Particle, l'auteure fait des provisions quant A l'avenir de la psychologie des femmes en tant que specialize au sein de la discipline.




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[Author Affiliation]


York University

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