Native Apostles: Black and Indian Missionaries in the British Atlantic World

By Carroll, Brian D. | Historical Journal of Massachusetts, Summer 2017 | Go to article overview

Native Apostles: Black and Indian Missionaries in the British Atlantic World


Carroll, Brian D., Historical Journal of Massachusetts


Native Apostles: Black and Indian Missionaries in the British Atlantic World. By Edward E. Andrews. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013. 326 pages. $39.95 (hardcover).

This book needed to be written. Native Apostles: Black and Indian Missionaries in the British Atlantic World pulls together insights from scholarship published in recent decades about the spread of Protestant Christianity around the British Atlantic. Collectively, these works have transformed our understanding of the history of religion in the western hemisphere during the colonial period-particularly the role both Indians and Africans played in shaping Christianity's meaning and character in the Americas. Continuing this trend, Edward E. Andrews persuasively argues in Native Apostles that during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, throughout the British Atlantic, African, African-American, and Native American missionaries "sought to evangelize [other] blacks and Indians" (2).

The vast majority of people working in British missions, Andrews declares, "were not actually British" but rather what he calls "native" missionaries who "generally came from the same population as their potential converts" (2). He then marshals overwhelming evidence demonstrating that they were indeed ubiquitous. This story sheds light on how colonized peoples responded to, rejected, shaped, and appropriated Christianity and demonstrates that Native missionaries were at the heart of the cultural exchange we most associate with colonialism. Anglo-American missionary groups invested a great deal of time, money, and effort to train and support hundreds of Indians and Africans in the hopes that they would convert the denizens of the Atlantic borderlands to Christianity. While historically they have been overlooked, some historians in recent years have begun to reexamine a few of the betterknown members of this cadre, such as Mohegan minister Samson Occom. Yet before Native Apostles no attempt has been made to look at them as a group, assess their role in the expansion of Christianity, or try to place them in a larger Atlantic framework.1

Covering well-worn ground for scholars of Protestant missions in the New World, chapter one looks at Puritan missionary activity among New England's Algonquian groups and the role indigenous religious leaders played in the formation of the Massachusetts 'Praying Towns' in the seventeenth century. In the more ambitious chapter two, Andrews details the role of Native missionaries in the less-frequently studied period from 1700 through the 1740s in the colonial Northeast. Settings examined include southern New England after King Philip's War, as well as Anglican efforts among the Iroquois and Yamassee during the early eighteenth century. Particularly insightful was the role race and slavery played in failed efforts by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG), a leading British missionary organization, to create a plantation-supported college in Barbados to train indigenous missionaries.

Covering the role of African and Native missionaries during the Great Awakening revivals, chapter three examines the explosion of Black and Indian evangelists during the era from 1735 to 1770. Signifying a "major shift in transatlantic protestant missionary activity," (23) this chapter includes analysis of Moravian activity in the Danish Caribbean starting in the 1740s as well as their activities among the Lenape (Delaware) and Mahican in northeastern North America. Also chronicled is the creation of an Anglican school for slave children in Charleston, South Carolina, and the success separatist denominations had among southern New England's indigenous Protestants. Andrews works hard in this very effective section to show the connections between these diverse efforts to create a corps of Indian and black evangelists. He succeeds admirably in linking the Caribbean, American South, and New England, as well as juggling multiple denominations- Moravian, Anglican, Congregationalist, separatist (particularly Baptist), as well as New Light revivalists. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Native Apostles: Black and Indian Missionaries in the British Atlantic World
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.