Peculiarities of the Somatotype of Athletes with Different Directions of the Training Process

By Kutseryb, Tetiana; Vovkanych, Lyubomyr et al. | Journal of Physical Education and Sport, March 2017 | Go to article overview

Peculiarities of the Somatotype of Athletes with Different Directions of the Training Process


Kutseryb, Tetiana, Vovkanych, Lyubomyr, Hrynkiv, Myroslava, Majevska, Sofia, Muzyka, Fedir, Journal of Physical Education and Sport


Introduction

The training of highly skilled athletes requires deep analysis and consideration of their anatomical and physiological characteristics. The adaptation of training process to the peculiarities of the physique and composition of the body of athlete and to some other morphological and functional characteristics creates the conditions for complete realization of his physical abilities (Vovkanych, Kutseryb, Hrynkiv, & Muzyka, 2015). There are only a few studies in which the body structure of athletes has been evaluated with the use of the modern approaches of constitutional morphology, the model somatotypes of the athletes of different sports are compared and individual differences have been revealed (Kutseryb, Hrynkiv, Vovkanych, & Muzyka, 2015; Koropanovski et al., 2011; Kutseryb et al., 2016; Martirosov, 1982; Martirosov, 1998). Several authors have examined the morphological peculiarities of wrestlers (Hrynkiv et al., 2013; Kutseryb, Hrynkiv, Vovkanych, & Muzyka, 2015, Tanner, 1964) and boxers (Kutseryb, Hrynkiv, Vovkanych, & Muzyka, 2015; Vovkanych, Kutseryb, Hrynkiv, & Muzyka, 2015). Some authors (Hrynkiv et al., 2013; Kutseryb, Hryn'kiv, Vovkanych, & Muzyka, 2014; Kutseryb, Hrynkiv, Vovkanych, & Muzyka, 2015; Kutseryb et al, 2016; Martirosov, 1982; Vovkanych, Kutseryb, Hrynkiv, & Muzyka, 2015) have examined the morphological peculiarities of the athletes of combat sports. There are very few studies described the distinctive characteristics of body structure, proportions and somatotype of the weightlifters, wrestlers and athletes of other sports (Hrynkiv et al., 2013; Koropanovski et al., 2011; Krawczyk, Sklad, & Jackiewicz, 1997; Kutseryb, Hrynkiv, Vovkanych, & Muzyka, 2015; Martirosov, 1998; Štepnička, 1972).

However, the usage of different (often outdated) constitutional schemes in various observations significantly complicates the somatotype determination and makes it impossible to compare their results (Carter, Heath, 1990, Ramirez-Velez et al, 2014; Krawczyk, Sklad, & Jackiewicz, 1997). Therefore, the necessity of comprehensive analysis of the somatotypes of skilled athletes with the use of modern, most commonly used methods arises. The main purpose of the present study was to compare the somatotypes of athletes with different direction of training process.

Material & methods

The subjects were 188 males athletes aged 17-24 years, who represent 12 different sports, with sport experience more than 5 years (detailed description is provided in Table 1). All the participants were informed about the aim and methodology of the study and they volunteered to participate in this study. Informed consent was obtained. This study was approved by ethics committee of the Lviv State University of Physical Culture. All procedures accorded with the principles of the Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki). Somatotype was determined using the categorizations, proposed by Heath-Carter (Carter, 2002). It is recommended for people of both sexes aged 14 to 70 years, including the athletes. Somatotypes were estimated using the Heath-Carter anthropometric method by means of equations (Carter, 2002). In order to determine somatotypes, the body mass (measured with Tanita BC 601), body height (measured with anthropometer), skinfolds (Skinfold Caliper Baseline 12-1130), girths and breadths were measured (Carter, 2002, Koropanovski et al., 2011; Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Sterkowicz, & śarów, 2011). All measurements were taken from the right side of the body by the same tester. The statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS 11.5 package software. All values are given as mean ± SEM (standard error of the mean).

Results

For athletes of combat sports (gopak fight, karate WKF, fencing and boxing) the most dominant component of somatotype was mesomorphy, probably as the result of high musculoskeletal robustness. The somatotype of gopak fighters and fencers was balanced mesomorph. …

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