Simulation as a Teaching Technology: A Brief History of Its Use in Nursing Education

By Sanko, Jill S. | Distance Learning, January 1, 2017 | Go to article overview

Simulation as a Teaching Technology: A Brief History of Its Use in Nursing Education


Sanko, Jill S., Distance Learning


INTRODUCTION TO SIMULATION

According to Gaba (2004), simulation is a technique rather than a technology that is able to provide realistic environments or practice proxies for the purposes of learning, training, and practice. Given its application in nursing education, and its current reliance on, and amalgamation with, sophisticated computer driven machinery the argument that simulation is also a technology can be made. Simulation is effective at bringing to life representative clinical encounters in a safe educational setting where no harm can come to patients. It can-and has been-successfully applied for the teaching and training of novice learners as a way to introduce concepts or skills, as well as for seasoned providers to provide a safe environment where deliberate practice, mastery, and upkeep of skills can occur.

Simulation can be used for teaching or practicing both technical skills (insertion of intravenous catheters, or suturing for example) and nontechnical skills (communication and teamwork). A combination of full body, high and low technology simulators (mannequins designed to depict humans), body part or body system-specific task trainers (models of specific body areas or systems), standardized patients (actual humans who are trained to portray illnesses for the purpose of practice taking a health history or health assessment), and virtual reality can be used as part of a simulation-based education program.

Simulation training can be immersive, where environments are set up to mimic clinical settings. These are usually replete with working medical equipment, simulated or real medications, and high-technology computer driven simulators. The use of confederates portraying other healthcare providers or family members may also be incorporated into simulation encounters for the purposes of improving realism and or as scenario guides to keep learning on track (Sanko, Shekhter, Kyle, Benedetto, & Birnbach, 2013). Immersive simulation encounters allow learners to work through scripted scenarios with defined learning objectives. Alternatively, task-specific simulation encounters that utilize low-technology task trainers and usually no scripted scenario or confederate allow learners to work through complex or technically difficult skills for the purposes of practice and refinement. Hybrid techniques can also be applied (the combination of two simulation modalities [a standardized patient and a task trainer, or virtual reality and a task trainer]) to provide educational opportunities where both technical and nontechnical skills can be taught or practiced simultaneously. Simulation may further be used as a way to assess a learners' aptitude, and can provide a realistic platform to measure competence prior to clinical practice or graduation from a program of study.

Simulation uses experiential learning as a foundational principle (Kolb, 1984), but has welcomed new frameworks, with the NLN-Jeffries simulation framework being the most notable nursing theory developed in simulation-based education. This framework guides the design, implementation, and evaluation of simulation-based practices in nursing education (Jeffries, 2005). Simulation-based education tends to be carried out in three distinct phases beginning with prework or briefing, followed by a hands-on/psychomotor or immersive experience, and culminating with a debriefing (Aebersold & Tschannen, 2013). The use of a phased approach allows participants to have a conceptual introduction to a topic or skill, followed by an opportunity to anchor the concept through a realistic firsthand experience where psychomotor, cognitive, and affective domains of education are utilized, and ending in a debriefing session. Debriefing is typically guided by a content expert and includes feedback, discussion, and time for learners to reflect on the experience. Simulation definitions and commonly used terminology are provided in Table 1.

SIMULATION IN NURSING EDUCATION: THE EARLY YEARS

STATIC MANNEQUINS AND TASK TRAINERS

Simulation as a teaching technology in nursing education has a long history spanning well over a century and a half. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Simulation as a Teaching Technology: A Brief History of Its Use in Nursing Education
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.