Toronto, the Belfast of Canada: The Orange Order and the Shaping of Municipal Culture

By Worsfold, Elliot | British Journal of Canadian Studies, July 1, 2017 | Go to article overview

Toronto, the Belfast of Canada: The Orange Order and the Shaping of Municipal Culture


Worsfold, Elliot, British Journal of Canadian Studies


William J. Smyth, Toronto, the Belfast of Canada: The Orange Order and the Shaping of Municipal Culture (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2015), 328 pp. Cased. $75. ISBN 978-1-4426-4687-2. Paper. $29.95. ISBN 978-1-4426-1468-0.

Toronto earned its label 'the Belfast of Canada' because of the similar Protestant, British, and monarchical values purported in both cities. William Smyth's study aims to examine just how applicable this description was by charting the history of Toronto's Orange Order from its inception to the 1950s. Relying on an unprecedented level of demographic and statistical data, Smyth provides a comprehensive examination of how the Orange Order dominated public life in Toronto and Belfast. In the monograph's first two chapters, Smyth establishes Toronto and Belfast's demographic and cultural similarities in the nineteenth century. In doing so, Smyth challenges a body of scholarship that has been hesitant to embrace Toronto's 'Belfast of Canada' label because of the title's association with violence and religious strife.

Despite the label's negative connotations, Smyth makes a compelling case for how the Orange Order and Protestantism influenced civic life in both Belfast and Toronto, often to the detriment of their Catholic populations. Throughout chapters 3 to 5, Smyth challenges the common perception of the Orange Order as an organisation made up of exclusively Irish immigrants who indulged in 'unruly behaviour' (p. 99). He points to the numerous Orangemen who did not fit this characterisation. Many Orangemen worked for the city as clerical workers, firefighters, policemen, and received preferential treatment over Catholics for city contracts. Orange Order leaders did not advocate for religious violence, but rather stressed respectability to their members. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Toronto, the Belfast of Canada: The Orange Order and the Shaping of Municipal Culture
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.