A Comparative Study of Self-Esteem and Happiness of Hosteller and Non- Hosteller Boys and Girls Students

By Mishra, Manju | International Journal of Education and Management Studies, September 2017 | Go to article overview

A Comparative Study of Self-Esteem and Happiness of Hosteller and Non- Hosteller Boys and Girls Students


Mishra, Manju, International Journal of Education and Management Studies


Keeping these points in focus, this study was framed and the three factors related with students were investigated.

Self-esteem

Greater consensus exists regarding the definition of self-esteem. Self-esteem has been defined as a global feeling of self-worth or adequacy as a person, or generalized feelings of self acceptance, goodness, and self-respect (Coppersmith, 1967; Crocker & Major, 1989; Rosenberg, 1965; Wylie, 1979). This global, personal judgment of worthiness is characterized as the evaluative component of the self (e.g., Campbell, 1990) and as distinct from collective or racial self-esteem (Crocker & Major, 1989). According to Epstein (1973) people have a basic need for self-esteem, and, at least in Western cultures, they use numerous strategies to maintain it (Dunning et al., 1995; Taylor & Brown, 1988; cf. Diener & Diener, 1995; Markus & Kitayama, 1991). A self-esteem form early in the course of development, remains fairly constant over time, and is relatively immune to change (Campbell, 1990).

Correlates of self-esteem

Most investigations of self-esteem have been concerned with the thoughts, moods, and actions often observed in college students in the laboratory that are associated with high versus low levels of the construct (e.g., Crocker & Major, 1989). For example, relative to people with low self-esteem, those with high self-esteem have been found to possess clearer self-concepts (Campbell & Lavallee, 1993); to be less vulnerable to depression (e.g., Harter, 1993; Tennen & Affleck, 1993; see also Kemis et al., 1993) and anxiety (Fleming & Courtney, 1984); to be more resilient to self-image threats (Spencer et al., 1993); and to be more likely to savor positive affect (Wood et al., 2003); to persist in the face of failure (DiPaula & Campbell, 2002) and to perceive negative feedback as a challenge rather than a threat (Seery et al., 2004). It should be

Noted, however, that little empirical research on self-esteem has been conducted with the elderly, who were the subject of our study. Agency and competence: Although less research has addressed the relationship between self-esteem and stable, dispositional constructs, some clues regarding the source of feelings of self-worth are provided in theoretical accounts of self-esteem. For example, according to one theoretical perspective, self-esteem is gained through efficacious and successful navigation of one's environment, whereby one acquires a sense of control, competence, and ability (Bandura, 1977; Crocker & Major, 1989; cf. Van Turnen & Ramanaiah, 1979). Furthermore, according to a developmental perspective, self-worth is derived from having a sense of competence in domains that are valued by the individual and important significant others (Harter, 1993). Thus, self-esteem would be expected to be closely linked with a sense of agency or mastery Happiness and Self-Esteem and control of one's environment. Indeed, the notion that a sense of personal control is critical to self-concept and self-esteem has been endorsed by a number of theorists (e.g., Fenichel, 1945; Herder, 1958; White, 1959; see Taylor & Brown, 1988)forarevie.

Positive expectations: Self-esteem is also highly correlated with optimism and lack of hopelessness in college students (Lucas et al., 1996; Scheier et al., 1994; see also Tennen & Affleck, 1993). Optimists anticipate bright futures and expect favorable outcomes for their actions. Thus, one might expect optimists to persist longer and harder through life's tasks and challenges, creating self-fulfilling prophecies, and, consequently, bolstering their self-regard. In sum, it would appear that self-esteem is strongly related to motivational constructs such as optimism, mastery, and competence that is, feelings that one isa competent agent, capable of success.

Happiness

Howard Mumford Jones once said that "happiness...belongs to that category of words, the meaning of which everybody knows but the definition of which nobody can give" (cited in Freedman, 1978). …

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