Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescents with Obesity

By Pogodina, Anna; Rychkova, Ljubov et al. | Childhood Obesity, December 2017 | Go to article overview

Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescents with Obesity


Pogodina, Anna, Rychkova, Ljubov, Kravtzova, Olga, Klimkina, Juliana, Kosovtzeva, Arjuna, Childhood Obesity


Address correspondence to: Anna Pogodina, MD, PhD, Department of Pediatrics, Scientific Centre for Family Health and Human Reproduction Problems, Timiryazeva Street 16, Irkutsk 664003, Russian Federation, E-mail: pogodina_av@inbox.ru

Introduction

The obesity epidemic is a global problem. From 1980 to 2013, the global prevalence of overweight and obesity increased by 27.5% in adults and 47.1% in children.1 Moreover, according to the results of an epidemiological survey conducted in Russia, there were 19.9% of overweight children and 5% of obese children.2

Children diagnosed as overweight have been well tracked into adulthood.3 An overweight diagnosis in childhood has been shown to significantly contribute to the development of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and skeletal disorders, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and some types of cancer.4,5 Moreover, obesity during adolescence is oftentimes associated with psychological problems. For example, an association has been found between adolescent obesity and depression.6 The health-related quality of life (HRQL) is among one of the psychosocial instruments used to assess physical and psychosocial well-being.4

HRQL is a comprehensive multidimensional construct encompassing physical and psychosocial well-being.7 Previous studies have shown that obese and overweight children have significantly lower HRQL scores, compared with lean children in clinical and in community-based samples.8-13 It has also been shown that HRQL scores in children diagnosed as overweight and obese are comparable to that of children with inflammatory bowel diseases,14 and in severely obese children and adolescents HRQL scores are comparable with those having received cancer treatment.15

In the last decade, there has been increasing interest in the investigation of factors associated with decreased HRQL scores in children with obesity. Outcome data are essential for the development of programs which address the treatment and prevention of obesity in this age group. It has been shown that worsening HRQL scores in children with obesity have been associated with increased screen time, as well as a lessened level and pattern of physical activity.16-18 Evidence points to a strong association between worsening HRQL scores and symptoms of depression in children and youth with obesity.19 In addition, there is evidence that HRQL scores differ based on gender among obese children. The majority of studies demonstrate a connection between lower HRQL scores in obese females.11,20,21 However, other authors have found worsening HRQL scores among males22 or the absence of any significant gender influence on HRQL scores.9

Obesity in adolescence is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors (CRFs), such as hypertension and disorders in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.23,24 Therefore, we can assume that CRFs influence HRQL scores in adolescents, for example, through pathophysiological mechanisms involving emotions. At the same time there are very few existing studies which have investigated the relationship between CRFs and HRQL scores among obese adolescents. Moreover, those that do exist tend to include patients with severe obesity21,24-26 and/or the results presented are contradictory. There are almost no studies which examine the relationship between CRFs and HRQL scores in nonselective samplings, including adolescents with different degrees of obesity.

Undoubtedly, the problem warrants further investigation; hence, the aim of our research was to determine the estimated frequency of CRF and its association(s) with HRQL total scores and HRQL scores in each domain in a nonselective sample of adolescents of different genders within a cohort of Russian adolescents diagnosed with obesity. …

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