Item-Wise and Space-Wise Content Analysis of Swachh Bharat Mission in Hindi Newspapers

By Ashma; Goel, Rita et al. | International Journal of Education and Management Studies, December 2017 | Go to article overview

Item-Wise and Space-Wise Content Analysis of Swachh Bharat Mission in Hindi Newspapers


Ashma, Goel, Rita, Khan, Mujahid, International Journal of Education and Management Studies


India is a house to 1.21 billion people, nearly one-sixth ofthe world's residents. The rural sanitation coverage in the country was as low as 1 per cent at the beginning of the 1980s. According to the Census (2011), about 72.2 per cent of the Indian population is staying in 16.78 crore households in around 638,000 villages. Out of which, about 5.48 crore households (32.7 per cent) had approach to toilets which means that 67.3 per cent of the rural households in the India still didn't have access to sanitation facilities. Later, as per the Baseline Survey (2012-2013) carried out by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation through the States, 40.35 per cent of rural households have been found to have access to toilets. Open defecation without a latrine or toilet is amid the popular universal hazard to health especially in India. Despite the fact it is well-known that modem sewage framework enhances health, it is unexpected whether sanitation program viable for a low capacity and poor country government could be practical.

The Prime Minister of India launched the Swachh Bharat Mission on 2nd October 2014 to accelerate the efforts for achieving universal sanitation coverage and to put focus on sanitation. It aims to reach Swachh Bharat by 2019, as a fitting compliment to the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, which shall be developing the levels of sanitation in rural areas through Solid and Liquid Waste Management practices and building Gram Panchayats Open Defecation Free (ODF), clean and sanitized.

In simple words, media is a plural form ofthe word medium. The word media is extensively used as a short form for mass media. Media are those agencies which are involved in creation, selection and distribution of information among the people. Mass media helps in creation of mass opinions, cultures and advocacy. In India, mass media comprises of print media and electronic media. Print media is composed of newspapers, magazines andjoumals. While electronic media includes radio, television, animations, photography, films etc. Some of these are related to visual media. The primary function of newspapers is to disseminate information. They print 'news', which normally subsist ofreports of events. They also consist of'features' which are articles on a specific theme and 'editorials' which explicit assessment about various subjects.

Stacks and Hocking (1992) characterize content analysis as "a research method or a measurement technique that involves the systematic study ofthe content of communication messages." Holsti (1969) provide some steps in conducting content analysis research such as choosing and describing content categories; specifying the unit of analysis; conclusive on the system of enumeration; and bringing out analysis.

Shoemaker and Reese (1996) classify content analysis into two traditions - the behaviourist tradition and the humanist tradition. The behaviourist way to content analysis is mainly concerned with the possessions that content yields and this approach is the one followed by social scientists. The behaviourist approach glance forwards from media content in trying to find future effects, the humanist approach looks backwards from media content in trying to identify what it voices about society and the culture generating it. Humanist scholars draw on psycho-therapy and cultural anthropology to evaluate how media content such as film and television drama expose authenticity about a society.

In 1950s, media content analysis propagated as a research methodology in mass communication investigations and social sciences with the appearance of television. Media content analysis has been a leading research method for studying imitations of violence, racism and women in television programming as well as in films.

Quantitative content analysis gathers data about media content such as theme or matter, volume of remark, messages decisive by key words in context (KWIC), transmission of the media (audience reach) and frequency. …

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