System, Individual and Personality in Psychology and Education

By Yakupova, R. M.; Fedotova, M. A. et al. | Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, January 1, 2016 | Go to article overview

System, Individual and Personality in Psychology and Education


Yakupova, R. M., Fedotova, M. A., Malkina, N. A., Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict


INTRODUCTION

Concepts "human", "individual" and "personality" are reflecting the integrity of subject of human society. How differ these units of society and how to form them in course of nurturing and education? These issues are especially acutely rising at change of economic and political situation in society. All these concepts characterize system qualities of society members. However, natural subjects also possess system qualities. What is the difference between natural and social system qualities? In which proportions they are in system of interaction of a human and nature?

System qualities that are nurtured from the early childhood seem to be inherent to the things or people by their nature. Studying of system qualities by students in course of preparation of future teachers enriches their sphere of cognition and extends the general methodological base of professional activity. The development of methods of system analysis of people's life in nature and society, including cognition processes, is a continuous actual pedagogical problem in education system. In this article are reflected results of system analysis of content of studying courses "Natural science" and "Methods of teaching of interactive course Surrounding World", studied by students of higher educational pedagogical institutions of Russia. Course "Surrounding World" for basic education is organized at the end of XX century, includes two major components: "Natural Science" and "Social Science" (Kozina, 2004); it allows to integrate into united system the initially segmented knowledge of children and to develop the system of new knowledge about interaction of a human and nature on this basis. It is supposed that a teacher of basic classes had an ability to detect in children that initial level of world cognition and to correct it, use the existing experience for development of their activity of scientific cognition (Barysheva et al., 2003; Chudinova and Bukvareva, 2001), master qualities characteristic for integrated course "Surrounding world". What significance has system qualities in life of a human?

RESEARCH METHOD

In the basis of Federal state educational standard of basis general education is laid the system-activity approach (Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation, 2010). Conception of development of universal learning activities is also developed on the basis of stsrem-activity approach, developed by domesti c scientists, such as L.S. Vygodskiy, A,N, Leontiev, P.Ya. Galperin, D.B. Elkonin, V.V. Davydov, A.G. Asmolov. Systematicity, as a characteristic feature of material reality is fixing the prevailing of organization over chaotic changes in the world, reflecting internal segmentation, structurality of the material world, appears to be a developing characteristic of the matter; properties of system by themselves are abstract, in many cases are "hypersensitive', i.e. happens to be teared apart from sense-subject basis. Achievement of conception of developing education on works of D.B. Elkonin, V.V. Davydov, P.Ya. Galperin at present moment did nor lead to modernization of all system of basic education, but stayed only an "isolated island" in educational system (Asmolov et al., 2010). The question is: why did it happen so? Leontiev (Leontiev, 1975), while characterizing his work, wrote:

The main thing is this book consists in the effort of psychologically comprehend categories, most important for construction of non-controversial system of psychology as a particular science about emergence, functioning and construction of psychic reflection of reality that mediated the life of individuals. This is the category of subjective activity, category of human consciousness and category of personality (p. 12).

A.N. Leontiev saw his task not so much in statement of particular-psychological provisions as in search of method of their acquisition, following from historical-materialistic teaching about the nature of a man, his activity, consciousness and personality. …

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