Truth and Reconciliation: Treaty People in Instrumental Music Education

By Tremblay-Beaton, Katie | The Canadian Music Educator, Fall 2017 | Go to article overview

Truth and Reconciliation: Treaty People in Instrumental Music Education


Tremblay-Beaton, Katie, The Canadian Music Educator


Introduction

The Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement was implemented in 2007 as the largest class-action settlement in Canadian history. This settlement included an agreement with the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) of Canada to facilitate reconciliation between those affected by residential schooling and all Canadians (Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, 2017). The TRC explains that reconciliation is about establishing and maintaining a mutually respectful relationship between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in this country through an awareness of the past, acknowledgement of the harm that has been inflicted, atonement for the causes, and action to change behaviour (TRC, 2015). In 2015, The TRC published their final report, including 94 Calls to Action to further support the reconciliation between Indigenous peoples and Canadians. In terms of educational reform, the TRC has made demands upon the Ministry of Education in the Education for Reconciliation section of the report, specifically Calls 62 to 65. This section calls for curriculum, funding, and teaching methods that support Indigenous peoples' contributions to the creation of Canada (TRC, 2015).

While the Commission implores the Ministry of Education to take action for reconciliation, educators have a collective responsibility to consider the impact of the TRC within their own classrooms (Czyzewski, 2011). Calls 62 and 63 directly affect Canadian teachers in that they are called to "teach age-appropriate curriculum on residential schools, Treaties, and Indigenous peoples' historical and contemporary contributions to Canada" and "maintain an annual commitment to Indigenous education issues, including building student capacity for intercultural understanding, empathy, and mutual respect" (TRC, 2015, Calls 62 and 63). As a music teacher-researcher who works in an elementary public school in Ontario, I understand this is no simple task. My aim in this paper is not to ask music teachers to completely redesign their programs as there is a lot of positive action happening in music classrooms across the province. I ask that music teachers consider how to infuse Indigenous pedagogies in their existing programs as a step down the path toward reconciliation among Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples.

Framework

Music educators who want to answer these calls to action need consider two specific aspects when enacting Indigenous pedagogy in their classroom. One is the difference between integration and infusion. Integration is considered an "add on" to an already established curriculum whereas infusion permeates the existing curriculum itself. Integrating Indigenous pedagogy further sublimates Indigenous peoples as an addition to the curriculum rather than treating the subject matter as equal (Bell, 2014). The other aspect includes focusing on the material culture of appreciation instead of the praxis of Indigenous pedagogies. Including Indigenous musics in the classroom under the guise of multiculturalism or inclusivity further separates the divide between Indigenous communities and the academy (Smith, 2005).

Studying Indigenous musics out of context becomes another form of colonization in which the material is being used to serve the needs of the academy. For example, Chung (2016) encourages educators to include Indigenous materials in the classroom through ceremonies of introduction, acknowledgement, inclusion, learning, and reconciliation in order to focus on the act of engagement instead of studying the material through a Western lens. In music education this would mean not focusing on the reproduction of musical objects, such as Indigenous songs, but rather the praxis of how students' are reflective and critical thinkers of music by becoming equal participants in the construction of Indigenous pedagogy (Green & Narita, 2015).

Engaging in Indigenous education invokes acts of critical pedagogy, calling for an examination of ideological forces that influence all aspects of lived lives, including the role of schooling (Budd, 2008). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Truth and Reconciliation: Treaty People in Instrumental Music Education
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.