2. Rhythmical Creativity in Duple and Triple Meter of Students of Early-School Education in the Light of Their Stabilised Musical Aptitudes and Rhythm Readiness to Improvise

By Kołodziejski, Maciej | Review of Artistic Education, January 1, 2018 | Go to article overview

2. Rhythmical Creativity in Duple and Triple Meter of Students of Early-School Education in the Light of Their Stabilised Musical Aptitudes and Rhythm Readiness to Improvise


Kołodziejski, Maciej, Review of Artistic Education


(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)

1.Introduction

The most important skill presented in Gordon's Theory of Music Learning is improvisation called by E. E. Gordon "spontaneous expression of audiation" (Gordon 2003). According to Ch. Azzara "improvisation is necessary [...] because it is through improvisation that students espress their musical thoughts and feelings in the moment of performance" (Azzara 2005: 399). An important part of learning the improvisation is the musical interactions with others with the application of various melodies and rhythms (Azzara 2005: 400). Since the rhythm accompanies a human being in day-to-day life (architecture, literature, art, dance, poetry and music), provides the order to the nature (the sequence of seasons of year, daytime and night-time, sunrise and sunset) and constitutes the element of a human being's existence (breathing in-out, heartbeat, intestinal peristalsis, blood circulation, motion), therefore in this article it has become the subject of the analyses and the starting point of research on the imitation and improvisation of the students' - teachers-to-be of the early education pupils. Rhythm is 'the factor organising the sequence of sounds of a musical piece in time' (Habela 1988: 166) and belongs to the basic musical elements.

Edwin E. Gordon regards rhythm, next to melody (in the tonal aspect) and harmony as the basic musical aptitudes. (Gordon 1999). Rhythm is considered as the crucial point in improvisation since it requires the strong foundation in the form of rhythmical abilities as well as the devotion of the performer in creation of the musical piece in the real time. The creator can easily transforms and locate the sounds displaced in time in specific place, depending on tempo and meter. Thus, rhythm is also related to the issue of time in music (Silverstein, Silverstein and Nunn 2001). Even younger children have the tendency to use the figural or meter application of rhythm, the older ones are able to use both of these representations more flexibly than the younger ones (Paananen 2006).

Segregating music according to motifs, phrases, sequences when we can hear a distinctive accent in the musical piece (i.e. change in dynamics, tone, duration and many others). The feeling of pulse (beat) increases along with the accenting and the number of meter-rhythmical phrases characteristics for this phenomenon and the very sensitivity for the pulse appears very early, as infants are able to tell the difference between the regular and irregular sound sequences. While creating rhythm, children focus their attention on the relative period of the rhythm of speech. Four-year-old children can organise the rhythm spontaneously, i.e. in accordance with the lyrics (Paananem 2006: 350). The meter accent is dependable upon the sensitivity to feeling the impulses which can be divided in two phases: the subjective feeling of pulse and the perception of meter (Paananem 2006: 350). Pulse is related to rhythm but it deals more with accenting the main parts of tempo, in accordance with musical meter and tempo.

The pulse is so important in a musical piece that it is accepted to use numbers to mark it (one, two, three, four). The meter, however, as a rule is the regular appearance of accents in the rhythmical course of musical pieces (Habela 1988: 113). Edwin E. Gordon claims that counting during playing music is only a subjective feeling of the real pulse and tempo. It means that there exist as many tempos of a particular piece of music as the number of people counting the pulse. The main problem in rejecting the habit of counting in music is increasing the audiation competences, thus related to understanding music and hearing its from the inside. Despite the fact that learning music is similar to learning a language, the verbalisation is not going to substitute the musical communication. The music-related sounds are stored as the patterns in structural memory, analogous to poetry or rhyming regardless of understanding these phenomena (Borchgrevink 1993). …

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