State-Mandated Participatory Governance in California Community Colleges: Perceptions of College and Faculty Senate Presidents

By Beebe, Anthony E. | Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, Fall 2017 | Go to article overview

State-Mandated Participatory Governance in California Community Colleges: Perceptions of College and Faculty Senate Presidents


Beebe, Anthony E., Journal of Applied Research in the Community College


Since the political activist years of the 1960s, participatory governance has emerged across all sectors of the United States economy as a human and organizational system (Burgos-Sasscer, 1993; Ghoshal & Bartlett, 1995; Parilla, 1993). Thaxter and Graham (1999) described participatory governance as an organizational redesign that shifts levels of decision making from a typical top-down structure to one involving multiple levels within an organization. Over the years, colleges and universities have demonstrated a commitment to the principle of participatory governance. This movement can be seen through development of collegial models, which have given faculty primacy over areas of the organization relating to curriculum development, academic planning, and faculty hiring and promotion (Dill & Helm, 1988). For the most part, development of participatory governance in four-year colleges and universities has been ahead of two-year community colleges that arose from the hierarchical K-12 environment. In California prior to 1988, the more structured, hierarchical environment of community colleges resulted in community college faculty feeling disenfranchised from college governance decisions. Since passage of Assembly Bill 1725 (Community College Act, 1988, Cal. Stat. Ch. 973 3, 3093), California's community colleges have been legally mandated to have participatory governance structures in place. California community college faculties are required to have a voice and play a significant role in college governance processes.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to explore through a 3-phase Delphi process the perspectives of California community college and faculty senate presidents related to the state's legally mandated participatory governance structure. The study sought to identify the perceptions of these primary governance leaders to establish a profile of significant matters in the participatory governance system of California community colleges. An overarching purpose of the study was to understand how the California's community college governance system might be described in the context of one of the three Baldridge models of higher education governance (Baldridge, 1971). Given there has not been a study of California's community college governance structure in the context of Baldridge's models, this study adds an important dimension to the research. In doing so, it contributes to the theories of participatory governance and the general study of human and organizational systems.

Background to the Study

Community colleges are an American development and are a more recent development than the nation's universities. As Cohen and Brawer (2008) noted, the majority of the 1,100 community colleges in the United States were developed during the 1960s. During this time of rapid growth, community college governance was characterized by a strong, top-down, control-oriented leadership approach (Thaxter & Graham, 1999). Some elements of this bureaucratic structure were vestiges of more hierarchical K-12 ancestry, but most were out of necessity because a tightly controlled approach was appropriate during such rapid expansion. Decisions needed to be strong, quick, forceful, and unhindered by time-consuming consensus building of participatory governance in order to avoid chaos (Thaxter & Graham, 1999).

During the decades of the 1970s and 1980s, the pace of growth of community colleges slowed; however, the colleges were still operating in an environment of prosperity. Governance of the institutions had matured and the atmosphere lent itself to development of more open and inclusive structures (Kater & Levin, 2004). The institutions began movement away from the dominant bureaucratic model. Faculty wanted more participation and a greater voice in college operations.

California Community College Governance

The history of governance in California's community colleges has been unique compared to other states. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

State-Mandated Participatory Governance in California Community Colleges: Perceptions of College and Faculty Senate Presidents
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.