Gender Inequality in Political Democracy: Electoral Accountability, Women's Representation in Government, and Perceived Corruption

By Ionescu, Luminiţa | Journal of Research in Gender Studies, January 1, 2018 | Go to article overview

Gender Inequality in Political Democracy: Electoral Accountability, Women's Representation in Government, and Perceived Corruption


Ionescu, Luminiţa, Journal of Research in Gender Studies


1.Introduction

Women's representation is associated with corruption via the alleviating route of electoral accountability that makes corruption unsafe, and thus should mitigate the link between women's representation and corruption (Balica, 2017; Lăzăroiu et al., 2017; Nica, 2015; Pol and Reveley, 2017): they are more disinclined to the consequences of getting involved in corruption than men and may be more predisposed than the latter to be considered responsible for corruption as a result of unbalanced approach. Less pervasive corruption generates a more substantial deterrent for women to get involved in corruption than men. (Esarey and Schwindt-Bayer, 2018)

2.Literature Review

Superior female quotas in the legislative office and in the personnel are relevantly related to an inferior degree of corruption. (Hao, Chang, and Sun, 2018) Female political figures confront higher criteria in public activity, as women voters require more from female legislators than from male ones. The impact of politician gender on sanction differs by voter gender: female voters are more predisposed to penalize female legislators for lawbreaking. Corruption is associated adversely with women's representation. (Eggers, Vivyan, and Wagner, 2018) Women's participation percentages in politics and the labor market (Esty, 2017; Mihăilă, Popescu, and Nica, 2016; Petcu, 2017; Popescu et al., 2017) are not straightly associated with lower corruption. Power distance and maleness are frequently related to both corruption and women's participation percentages. The absence of cultural features (Bereketeab, 2017; Machan, 2017; Otrusinová, 2016; Popescu and Alpopi, 2017; Profiroiu and Nastacă, 2016) may generate an artificial link between raised female participation ratios and diminished corruption levels. (Debski et al., 2018)

3.Methodology

Using data from Afrobarometer, Gallup, Transparency International, UNDP, UNIFEM, WEF etc., I performed analyses and made estimates regarding distribution by gender of civil servants with regard to the manifestations of corruption existing in public administration. …

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