The Role of Communication in Arab-Israeli Armed Confrontations

By Orzeaţă, Mihail | International Journal of Communication Research, April-June 2018 | Go to article overview

The Role of Communication in Arab-Israeli Armed Confrontations


Orzeaţă, Mihail, International Journal of Communication Research


1.INTRODUCTION

The Arab-Israeli conflict has been lasting for over 70 years, presenting some moments of maximum intensity in the armed conflicts of 1948, 1956, 1967, 1973, 1982 and 2005.

The time intervals between the wars were marked by political tensions and low intensity conflicts.

The long period of the conflict radicalized the positions of the parties, an attitude that was also influenced by the way in which media reflected the events.

2.THE CAUSES AND A SHORT HISTORY OF THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT

2.1. CAUSES

The 1917 Balfour Declaration stimulated the Jews' emigration from Europe in the Middle East, assuring them, through the words of lord Rothschild, the president of the Zionist Federation, that "Her Royal Majesty's government [of the United Kingdom] is ok with establishing a national house for the Jewish people in Palestine and it will make use of all the efforts to facilitate the fulfilment of this objective, and it has to be understood that nothing has to be done in order to harm the civil and religious rights of the other non-Jewish communities in Palestine or the rights and the political status that the Jews enjoyed in any other state (AZIZ, 2007)."

The Israeli-Palestinian conflict for terrorism has a history of over 100 years (ISRAELIPALESTINIAN CONFLICT, 2018>, and the fights in order to rule Jerusalem date back to over 2000 years and they involved not only Jews, Christians and Muslims, but also the great powers (BOSNAQ et al., 2017). There are multiple causes for the conflict, but the following are the most important ones:

- The Israeli-Palestinian conflict for territory (two people fight for the same territory);

- The Jews' immigration to Palestine for 1917 up to the present and the emigration (in some cases, the expel) of the Palestinians from their home country;

- The Arab-Israeli conflict (the Arab states accuse Israel of depriving the Palestinians of their earth and their expel in other states and they dispute the right to exist for the Israeli state);

- Specific interests on behalf of some Arab states (Egypt to become the leader of the "Arab nation", Jordan to incorporate the West Bank, Syria to incorporate a part of Palestine etc.) and the personal goals of some of the Israeli leaders ("Israel's decision to invade Lebanon in 1982 was based especially on the ideology of the Great Israel and on Ariel Sharon's incorrigible instincts rather than on the existence of an external threat"), (SHLAIM, 1996) Palestinians and Arabs (the Egyptian president "Nasser acted during the May-June 1967 crisis especially due to his will to strengthen his personal awareness within the Arab world and within his own country rather than due to the desire of challenging Israel to a duel") (SHLAIM, 1996);

- The intervention of the great powers - USA, France and UK on behalf of Israel, respectively of USSR on behalf of the Arabs.

2.2. SHORT HISTORY OF THE ARAB-ISRAELI WAR

The Arab-Israeli conflict was almost permanent starting from 1917 and up to the present and its intensity was different according to the internal and international political and diplomatic context. The most important moments which influenced the leaders' and the members' of the two communities current attitudes were:

- the Balfour Declaration from 1917;

- the Jews' immigration in the Palestine, starting from 1917 and up to the present;

- the 1948 war (the Independence war for the Israeli, respectively the Al-naqba = catastrophe for the Palestinian)

- the Suez war (1956);

- the Six-Day War (June 1967);

- The Low-Intensity War -1969-1970;

- the Yom-Kippur War - October 1973;

- The Lebanon war - 1982;

- the Palestinian insurgency from 1987 and up to the present;

- the 20O5 conflict

3.ASPECTS COMMON TO MEDIA COVERAGE OF THE PARTIES INVOLVED

The analysis of the messages broadcasted in the Israeli, Palestine and Arab media by researchers belonging to the two communities, and also of other states, led to the conclusion that:

- hate, fear (GOLDBERG, 2004), discontent, threats (OKBI & HASHAVUA, 2016; KEINON & AHRONHEIM, 2018; RASGON, 2018), and the mutual lack of trust, (ROTH, 2018) represent the predominant feelings in the relationship between the Israeli and the Palestinians. …

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