Improvement of Physical Condition of Football Referees by Athletics

By Maslennikov, Alexander; Soloviev, Mikhail et al. | Journal of Physical Education and Sport, January 2019 | Go to article overview

Improvement of Physical Condition of Football Referees by Athletics


Maslennikov, Alexander, Soloviev, Mikhail, Vakalova, Lyudmila, Zaiko, Dmitriy, Dmitriev, Igor, Journal of Physical Education and Sport


Introduction

Today's highly professional football is becoming more dynamic every year. Players in the arena do many movements and technical and tactical actions. The requirements for physical readiness of both players and football referees are increasing.

Numerous experts note that blunders made by referees during refereeing are often associated with a lack of preparedness (Spirin, 2003; Budogossky, 2008; Kulalaev, 2006; Turbin, 2009; Castagna, 2008; Schenk et al., 2018; Suarez-Arrones, et al., 2013; Emmonds, et al., 2015; Rebelo, 2011; Webb, 2014; Weston, 2007). The results show that referees mostly make mistakes in the closing minutes of each half of the game. This is associated with accumulating physical fatigue, which leads to a decrease in the concentration of mindfulness and quick decision-making (Helsen, 2004; Dixon, 2014; Di Salvo, 2009; Hogarth et al.,2015; Put et al.,2014; Dell, 2016; Larkin, 2018).

Therefore, this indicates a lack of physical fitness of the referees during the refereeing. In recent years, various studies related to football refereeing have been conducted. The issues of training young referees and problems of organizing qualities necessary for the effective performance of work were considered: organizational and pedagogical aspects of professional training (Budogossky, 2008), specific skills formation (Turbin, 2009), professionally critical psychophysiological qualities formation (Soloviev, 2018). Besides, psychological aspects of refereeing were reserached (Chopilko, 2014). Physical training in the conducted studies was considered exclusively fragmentary (Weston, 2007). The study by P.N. Kulalaev (2006) only touches on the problems of physical training for beginning referees.

At present, there is no scientifically substantiated methodology of physical preparation of football referees in the annual cycle. There are parts of the training plans and guidelines that do not have the necessary scientific explanation. Then it follows that the physical training of football referees is not classified and there is no theoretical basis for its organization. The scientific literature does not entirely present the information describing the motor activity of referees which is the basis for research of physical preparation of football referees. Benchmarks that are recommended for testing the degree of physical fitness of football referees do not characterize the peculiarity of their professional activity. Therefore, there is a need to develop and create a new benchmark for football referees, which would be able to display the specificity of the motor activity.

Hypothesis: it is expected that the decision to increase the physical fitness of football referees is possible by the application of:

- Scientifically-argued means of athletics, considering the signs of motor activity;

- Benchmarks for assessing the level of physical fitness, meeting the metrological conditions;

- Planning of the training process, considering the degree of preparedness of the football referees.

The following tasks were set to solve the purpose of the experiment:

- To establish the status of the issue of physical training of football referees;

- To reveal the specificity of the motor activity of football referees of various qualifications;

- To investigate and experimentally substantiate the application of the athletics-based training method of football referees.

The next section contains an overview of the scientific literature. Next, the procedure for the study is described. Then the results are shown. Then discussions and conclusions are presented with conclusions. The last section contains a list of references.

Literature review

Athletics, due to their availability, is used in different sports to improve the process of physical training of athletes (triathlon, orienteering, figure skating, etc.). Football referees, in turn, use athletics for physical training, but there is no scientific explanation for its effectiveness for referees. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Improvement of Physical Condition of Football Referees by Athletics
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.