What Are the Most Effective Teaching and Learning Strategies According to Research and How Can These Be Applied in Business Studies?

By Slater, Jade | Teaching Business & Economics, Autumn 2018 | Go to article overview

What Are the Most Effective Teaching and Learning Strategies According to Research and How Can These Be Applied in Business Studies?


Slater, Jade, Teaching Business & Economics


Strategy 1 - Retrieval Practice:

Retrieval practice is any task which requires pupils to retrieve concepts or facts from their memories. This is often referred to as 'testenhanced learning' or more simply as quizzing. This aids performance in terminal exams because being required to retrieve information from your memory increases long-term retention of this information, making it easier to recall in the future. This is known as the 'testing effect'. This has been shown to be much more effective than re-studying information (Brown, Roediger and McDaniel, 2014). Some techniques which can be used to effectively use retrieval practice in the classroom include:

1. Start each lesson with a quiz that reviews the material from the last lesson and also some material that was covered last week and last month. These should be 'low stakes' quizzes where the marks are not collected (Rosenshine, 2012).

2. Use quizzes which require all pupils to answer such as miniwhite boards or coloured/lettered cards. This ensures all pupils do the cognitive work required to answer the question.

3. Use quizzes as homework to review material from previous lessons.

4. Knowledge organisers - A knowledge organiser specifies in detail, the facts and knowledge that all pupils will need to know and remember about a particular topic. These can be used for in-lesson quizzes by giving blank grids to students which they fill in, or as homework - pupils can 'self-quiz' at home by covering up one side of the knowledge organiser and writing out the knowledge from memory. They can then self-check this and correct any mistakes. They can also ask parents or friends to test them on the material. Pupils can be asked to learn sections as homework, to then be tested on at the start of the next lesson.

Strategy 2 - Spacing:

Spacing is revisiting a topic sometime after first learning it. Research has shown this to be effective as it allows for some forgetting time. Retrieving this information is therefore more difficult and so long-term retention is improved (Willingham, 2009). There are a number of ways in which you can implement this strategy into your teaching:

Use 'lagged homework' so that homework is used to review a topic taught in previous weeks/months. See business studies example.

Use starter quizzes as bell work to review multiple topics after they have been taught - see business studies example.

Strategy 3 - Interleaving:

This is when topics are taught and revised interleaved with one another. This is in contrast to teaching and revising the whole of one topic and then the whole of another topic (Brown, Roediger and McDaniel, 2014). This contrast is demonstrated in the following image:

This also involves mixing up materials within topics. For example, when solving different types of problems or answering different types of questions, the types should be mixed up. This contrasts to practising all of one type of question/problem before moving onto another.

Strategy 4 - Concrete Examples:

This is the use of specific examples to explain abstract ideas. …

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