Labor Productivity as an Integral Part of Innovative Entrepreneurship

By Valentinovna, Vinogradova Ekaterina; Aguero, Diego | Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, January 1, 2019 | Go to article overview

Labor Productivity as an Integral Part of Innovative Entrepreneurship


Valentinovna, Vinogradova Ekaterina, Aguero, Diego, Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal


INTRODUCTION

The costs of both living and past labor on the scale of the national economy takes into account the productivity of social labor, since from the social point of view, past labor is the living labor of people who participated in the previous stages of the production process and materialized in the objects and tools of labor (Audretsch, 2012). For the whole society, the economy of past labor is equivalent to the economy of living labor, for example, saving metal in the manufacture of machinery and equipment is equivalent to saving live labor, which is spent in metallurgical production (Scott, 2006). Therefore, increasing the productivity of social labor is a generalizing indicator of reducing the cost of both living and embodied labor per unit of production and characterizes the growth of production efficiency (Drolen, 1990).

LITURATURE REVIEW

The foundations of the doctrine of labor productivity were laid by A. Smith and D. Riccardo, but to date, the essence of labor productivity continues to be studied by scientists who give it as an economic category different interpretations (Lepoutre, 2013). The main issue of the scientific discussion is how to calculate the productivity of labor: taking into account the costs of living labor only or taking into account the costs of living and past labor (Koshkin, 2018). This issue has been actively debated in our country since the early 20s of the last century (Abramov, 2015). At the same time, there were radically opposite points of view: some scientists believed that labor productivity should be calculated by the cost of all total labor - living and materialized, others - that only by the cost of living labor (Baboshkina, 2018). Analysis of the economic literature shows that these disputes continue to the present time.

METHODOLOGY

The considered interpretations of the economic category "labor productivity", despite their differences, define it as an indicator of the process of productive use of working time required for the production of a given volume of production, reflecting only quantitative approaches to labor productivity (Rezazadeh, 2018). The dependence of labor productivity on the level of technological and information equipment of production, i.e., the conditions in which production processes take place do not determine the impact on productivity of personal qualities of performers, the most valuable of which in the conditions of innovative economy are the level of education, professionalism, innovative potential, learning and creativity of workers, which is crucial for the formation of quantitative and qualitative indicators of live labor, and to improve the efficiency of The transition to a post-industrial society gives new features to industrial production, which determine the widespread introduction of information technologies into production processes that change human labor functions, the development and development of innovations as the technological basis of the new economy, the improvement of methods of using production resources and technologies, the tightening of market requirements for quality indicators of products (Abramov, 2016).

Therefore, in the opinion of I. V. Zaikonnikova Krasnopevtseva, economic category "Labor Productivity" for the conditions of formation of post-industrial society should be clarified and expanded from the standpoint of the changes that have occurred in the industrial sector of the economy as a result of the introduction of scientific and technological achievements, innovative technologies, expanded investment in the human factor of production. In this regard, the author proposes the following interpretation of the economic category "Productivity" (Akhmetshin, 2018). Labor productivity in the transition to a post-industrial economy should be considered as an effective indicator of the quantity and quality of live labor, determined by the volume of production of the necessary complexity and quality produced per unit of working time, which depends on the technical, technological and information development of production, the level of intellectualization of production processes and the quality of the labor force employed in the production (level of its education, professionalism, learning and creativity) (Abramov, 2017). …

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