Poland's Competitive Position in Foreign Trade in Sports Articles and Equipment with China and Selected EU Countries

By Łapińska, Justyna; Huterska, Agnieszka et al. | Journal of Physical Education and Sport, January 1, 2020 | Go to article overview

Poland's Competitive Position in Foreign Trade in Sports Articles and Equipment with China and Selected EU Countries


Łapińska, Justyna, Huterska, Agnieszka, Zdunek-Rosa, Ewa, Huterski, Robert, Journal of Physical Education and Sport


(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omited.)

Introduction

The development of economic relations, mainly due to globalization processes and internationalization of processes, has created new operating conditions for individual companies, industries, sectors, and entire economies. The liberalization of trade, the growing importance of international companies and the greater opening of countries to foreign competition have resulted in increased interest in the issue of competitiveness(Cieślik et al., 2019).

Competitiveness is a concept commonly used by both researchers and practitioners of economic life. At the same time, it belongs to categories that are multi-faceted and, therefore, differently defined. Some authors, in the context of defining the concept of competitiveness, first distinguish between its levels. Therefore, they identify the competitiveness of enterprises, industries, national economies, and even of international economic groups (Rugman, Oh, & Lim, 2012). At the same time, they indicate a number of factors that affect the competitiveness of entities at each of the distinguished levels (Cheba & Szopik-Depczyńska, 2017). In particular, they are interested in factors that relate to the environment of business entities, such as the quality of national institutions supporting entrepreneurial environment and innovative potential (Kiseľákováet al., 2019; Balcerzak & Pietrzak, 2016; Zygmunt, 2019; Jakimowicz & Rzeczkowski, 2019) or the level of development and effectiveness of financial markets affecting the ability to expand specific entities (Meluzín et al., 2017, 2018; Skalicka et al., 2019; Skare&Porada-Rochoń, 2019a, 2019b).

Under the conditions of globalization and internationalization of economic processes, competitiveness is often considered in the context of the international market. It is then understood as the ability to effectively and profitably locate domestic products on foreign markets. Competitiveness understood in this way is the subject of many analyses and assessments. Most often they concern products delivered by the food, textile or high technology industries (Szczepaniak,2018,2019;Vošta, &Kocourek, 2017;Karabag, Lau, &Suvankulov, 2014).The subject literature lacks papers that refer to a relatively narrow group of products, which are sports articles and equipment. These are products willingly purchased by buyers. They frequently become helpful or even necessary for them, because they are used to properly care for their physical condition, and thus comfort of life (Khan et al., 2012). Demand for this type of good sometimes results from specific trends and fashion in this area. Although these are specific products, generally purchased by a specific group of buyers, many companies, also in Poland, sell them successfully also on foreign markets. It is worth examining Poland's international competitive position in trade in sports articles and equipment. This study is therefore an attempt to fill the gap in this area.

The purpose of the work is to analyse and assess Poland's competitive position in foreign trade in sports articles and equipment. The study covered the turnover of goods belonging to the CN 9506 group -Articles and sports equipment, in the years 2010-2018. The work focused on assessing Poland's competitive position in relation to the most important partners in trade in this type of products. This group of trading partners included China and six European Union countries.

Material and methods

The research used statistical data obtained from the ComExt database from the resources of the Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat). The analysis covered the CN 9506 article group, classified according to the Combined Nomenclature, i.e., 'Articles and sports equipment'. The study was carried out using a purposely selected set of quantitative measures of international ex post competitive position. To assess Poland's competitive position in foreign trade in products belonging to the indicated product group, indicators commonly used in the literature were applied. …

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