"Di Zi Gui" (Standards for Being a Good Student and Child): Implications for Children and Youth Development and Parenting

By Shek, Daniel T. L.; Law, Moon Y. M. | International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health, October 1, 2019 | Go to article overview

"Di Zi Gui" (Standards for Being a Good Student and Child): Implications for Children and Youth Development and Parenting


Shek, Daniel T. L., Law, Moon Y. M., International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health


(ProQuest: ... denotes non-US-ASCII text omitted.)

Introduction

In many cultures, there are two questions confronting young people, parents, youth workers, allied professionals and policy makers. The first question is what should the developmental "ideals" for children and adolescents should be. In the cultures emphasizing hunting, good physical strengths and independent living skills in children are usually emphasized. On the other hand, as order and social harmony are indispensable to crop growing in the agricultural societies, children are taught to be patient and respect the social norms. The second question is how parents should nurture their children to attain such developmental ideals. Again, different cultural characteristics with reference to the children's rights or parental power would suggest different strategies in the socialization process.

Regarding the developmental ideals for youth development, different attributes such as positive selfconcept, high self-esteem, meaningful engagement and good interpersonal relationship have been proposed by Western theorists. With particular reference to the positive youth development perspective (1-4), the developmental ideals of young people focus on their talents and potentials. According to Catalano, Berglund (5), a thriving young person has the attributes of bonding, resilience, psychosocial competence, self-determination, selfefficacy, positive identity, meaningful life, identification with prosocial norms and meaningful community engagement (6). According to Lerner, Brentano (7), the developmental ideals for young people include competence, character, connection, confidence, caring and compassion. According to Park and Peterson (8), there are 24 character strengths which can be regarded as the developmental ideals for young people.

Concerning how parents nurture the developmental ideals in young people, it is a question of parenting. In the Western literature, there are two commonly used frameworks of parenting. The first one is based on the work of Baumrind (9) which suggests that there are three types of parenting - authoritarian parenting (absolute control of the child with little freedom), permissive parenting (absolute freedom for the child with little control) and authoritative parenting (appropriate control and freedom for the child). In the second framework proposed by Maccoby and Martin (10), it is proposed that parenting is defined in terms of two dimensions (responsiveness and demandingness). As a result, four types of parenting emerge, including authoritarian parenting (low responsiveness but high demandingness), authoritative parenting (high responsiveness and high demandingness), permissive parenting (high responsiveness but low demandingness) and neglectful parenting (low responsiveness and low demandingness). There are also studies proposing that dyadic and systemic family processes influence adolescent development (11, 12).

In the past few decades, researchers have commonly used the Western models of youth development and parenting to understand Chinese children and parents. In the process, the question of whether the Western notions of youth development and parenting frameworks are applicable to our understanding of Chinese behavior has been raised (13). One response is that the Western concepts may not be totally applicable and we need to use indigenous Chinese concepts to understand youth development and parenting. In addition, it can be argued that Chinese writings such as the classics can contribute to our understanding of the developmental ideals for youth development and parenting.

In the traditional Chinese culture, there are writings on the developmental ideals of children and adolescents (14-16). For example, filial piety was described in the examples in the classic 24 stories of filial piety. The key messages are that the children should obey and serve their parents because their parents gave birth to and take care of them; filial children are blessed by Heaven. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

"Di Zi Gui" (Standards for Being a Good Student and Child): Implications for Children and Youth Development and Parenting
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.