Rhythm not Originated by Art -- It Exists in Nature -- In Nerve Action -- Required by the Natural Action of the Mind -- Elements of Rhythm Existing in Speech -- How Developed in Metre and Verse -- In Music -- Poetic Measures -- General Comment -- Meaning of Proportion -- Result of a Natural Tendency to Make Like Measurements -- Manifested Everywhere -- Proportion in Nature -- An Important Art-Principle -- Result of Comparing Measurements not Actually Made, but Possible to Make -- Not Actually Alike, but Apparently so -- Proportion Puts Like Measurements with Like -- Fulfilling Principles in Chapters XIV and XV. -- Why Proportional Ratios must be Represented by Small Numbers -- How Larger Numbers may be Used -- Rectilinear Proportions -- Of Allied Rectangles -- Of Irregular Complex Figures -- Must be Accompanied by Outlines of Simple and Regular Figures -- Proportions of Human Form and Clothing -- Countenance -- Greek Type of Face not the only Beautiful One -- Why Other Types may Seem Beautiful -- Proportions of Human Body Indicated by Circles and Ellipses -- Binocular Vision -- Its Relation to Ellipses -- Why the Curve Is the Line of Beauty -- Shapes of Vases -- Relation of Like Curves to Proportion Illustrated in Curves of the Human Form -- Conclusion.
ACCORDING to the chart on page 277, the methods of art-composition indicated in it result, as applied to duration, in rhythm; as applied to extension, in proportion; and, as applied to quality and pitch, whether of note or colour, in harmony. Of these, let us consider, first, rhythm. Art did not originate this, nor the satisfaction derivable from it. Long before the times of the first artists, men had had practical experience of its pleasures. Long