Small Firms, Large Concerns: The Development of Small Business in Comparative Perspective

By Konosuke Odaka; Minoru Sawai | Go to book overview
States where commercialization brought diversification rather than specialization ( Gregson, 1993).
6.
United States ( 1870), Ninth Census, iii: Instructions, 20. Most farm-based manufacturing was ignored as well; see United States ( 1900), Twelfth Census, vii, p. xxxii. An attempt in 1900 to tabulate some of the activity ignored in earlier years suggests that at least one-fifth, and probably much more, of industrial establishments sold products valued at less than $500 (ibid., p. xxxix).
7.
It seems likely that the Canadian enumeration was more sensitive in part because rural small-scale industry was relatively more important in Canada, and especially so in Quebec which provided so many of the senior census staff.
8.
Incomplete information for about 10 per cent of the firms makes it necessary to interpolate output using the report of product value, raw materials, or workers. Inwood ( 1995) describes the procedure.
9.
Canada, Census, 1891, iii. Each firm in the 1871 database is assigned an industrial class according to the firm's primary product or range of products. The presence of secondary products which, had they been primary, would have led to a different classification signals a lack of specialization.
10.
The problem arises because the industrial schedule typically provides no clues as to the residence of the proprietor. Interestingly, all other schedules (agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, etc.) identify the proprietor and provide a reference to the individual on the personal schedule. Only Schedule 6 (industry) lacks this link.
11.
It is worth repeating that by 'more than one location' I mean a proprietor of establishments in more than one enumeration district.
12.
The very few industrial establishments which reported the use of animal power are classified here as being unpowered.
13.
Even if a new technology was not used in Canada, its influence could have been felt through the price and availability of goods for import into Canada.
14.
The reliance of large workplaces on female and child labour reflects organizational modifications as well as an attempt to hire cheaper labour ( Berg and Hudson 1992, 1994). Although the data are not reported here, it is worth noting that the female share of the factory work-force in Canada was higher in larger factories and in more urban areas.

REFERENCES

Acheson T. W. ( 1972a), "The National Policy and the Industrialization of the Maritimes", Acadiensis, 1/2 (Spring), 1-28.

----- ( 1972b), "The Social Origins of the Canadian Business Elite", in David Macmillan (ed.), Canadian Business History: Selected Studies, 1497-1971. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 144-75.

----- ( 1973), "Changing Social Origins of the Canadian Industrial Elite, 1880-1910", Business History Review, 47 (Summer), 189-217.

-83-

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