State and Society in Early Modern Scotland

By Julian Goodare | Go to book overview

Perspectives on State Formation

Elizabeth ruled as much in Scotland as in England. She controlled the king not only in his childhood through Moray and successive regents but also in his adolescence and early manhood. She so managed him with the prospect of succeeding to her throne that the present union of the British crowns can be called her achievement.1

From the vantage-point of the 1720s, Sir John Clerk of Penicuik searched back for the roots of the parliamentary union of 1707 which he had helped to negotiate. He found them in the late sixteenth century. The Anglo-Scottish union is an important issue in itself, and there are several other issues relating to the state for which a long-term perspective is needed. This book has been centrally concerned with the period 1560-1625, and the early chapters have also discussed aspects of the previous century, between about 1469 and 1560. What this final chapter will do is to apply some of the methods and findings of this book to the subsequent century, up to about 1725. The result, although only an outline sketch, may illustrate some significant patterns in the development of the early modern state.

We begin by picking up some of the themes of the previous chapter: the three forms of state power--ideological, economic, and military power. This time we will look at how the resources of power developed during the period 1625--1725. This century contained at least five major landmarks: the creation of a new government by the covenanters in 1638-40; the English occupation of 1651; the Restoration of 1660; the Glorious Revolution of 1689; and the union of 1707. What new power resources did the state acquire at these dates, or in between them?

____________________
1
Sir John Clerk of Penicuik, History of the Union of Scotland and England, ed. D. Duncan ( SHS, 1993), 62-3.

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State and Society in Early Modern Scotland
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vii
  • Contents ix
  • CONVENTIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS xi
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - Sovereignty 11
  • 2 - The Roots of Authority 38
  • 3 - The Absolutist State 66
  • 4 - Finance 102
  • Warfare 133
  • 6 - Religion 172
  • 7 - Territory 214
  • 8 - The Borders and Highlands 254
  • 9 - State Power 286
  • Perspectives on State Formation 312
  • SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 343
  • Index 359
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