RECENT DEVELOPMENTS (FROM 1896)
Industrial Prosperity and the Growth of the Federation. The extension into new regions and into hitherto untouched trades, 522. Lack of success among the unskilled, 523. The Industrial Workers of the World, 523. The floaters and foreign-speaking workingmen, 523. Success of the miners, 523. The garment workers' unions, 524. Progress of the tradeagreement idea, 524. Its test during the anthracite miners' strike in 1902, 525. The manufacturers' control over access to the market, 525. The trust and its effect on unionism, 526. The "open shop movement," 526. Structural iron industry, 526. Trade-agreement outlook, 527. Awakening of the public to the existence of a labour question, 527. Evolution of public opinion since the eighties, 528. The public and labour legislation, 528. Organised labour's luke-warmness toward labour legislation, 529. Its cause, 529. Its effect on the administration of labour laws, 530. The courts, 530. The Danbury Hatters', the Adair, and Buck's Stove and Range cases, 530, The failure of lobbying, 531. "Reward your friends and punish your enemies," 531. Alliance with the Democrats, 531. The socialists, 532. Effect of litigation and politics on economic organisation, 533. Problem of the unskilled, 533. Three forms of industrialism, 533. The "one big union," 533. Industrialism of the middle stratum, 534. "Craft industrialism," 534. The National Building Trades' Council, 535. The Structural Building Trades' Alliance and the theory of "basic" unions, 535. The Building Trades' Department, 536. Other departments, 536. Forced amalgamations, 537. The new conception of "craft autonomy," 537. Probable future structure of American labour organisations, 537. The "concerted movement," 537.
BEGINNING in 1898 a distinctly new period emerged, but its facts are so recent that they belong more to a discussion of current problems than to a record of history. It remains only to connect them in a general way with the movements of preceding years.
In 1898 industrial prosperity returned, and with it, a rapid expansion of labour organisations. At no time in its history, not excepting the throbbing year of 1886, did labour organisation make such important gains as during the next five years. True, in none of these years did the labour movement add over half a million members as it had done in that memorable year; nevertheless, from the standpoint of permanency of achieve-