General Survey, 541. Colonial and Federal Beginnings, 548. Citizenship, 555. Trade Unionism, 561. Humanitarianism, 566. Nationalisation, 571. Upheaval and Reorganisation, 576.
IN no country has the value of strictly economic records been sufficiently appreciated, whether by the government or by private associations and least of all in America. As far as colonial industrial conditions and policies are concerned, with the special organisations of those days such as guilds, voluntary associations to raise capital, to develop markets, and to enlist governmental support for domestic producers, the economic historian is able to draw, in common with the general historian, upon such sources as Colonial Records, local histories, and publications of historical societies.
For the succeeding periods, and especially on the subject of the early labour struggles, there has been until recently scarcely any collected documentary material. The first state bureau of labour statistics in the United States was established in Massachusetts in 1869 and the Federal Bureau first came into existence in 1884. In their reports there are a few cursory studies of labour events and conditions during earlier years, such as the incomplete chronology of strikes since 1825, given for Massachusetts in the Massachusetts Bureau of Labor Statistics, Eleventh Annual Report, 1880, pp. 3-71; the account of "Strikes and Lockouts occurring Prior to 1881 in the United States," in the Commissioner of Labor, Third Annual Report, 1887, pp. 1029-1108; the similar one for Pennsylvania since 1835 in Secretary of Internal Affairs, Annual Report, 1880-1881 ( Harrisburg, 1882), Pt. III, Industrial Statistics, IX, 262-391; and the list of eleven (instead of seventeen) labour conspiracy cases prior to 1842 enumerated in the United States Bureau of Labor, Sixteenth Annual Report, 1901, pp.