The Political Calypso: True Opposition in Trinidad and Tobago, 1962-1987

By Louis Regis | Go to book overview

Afterword

After 1987 the tone of the political calypso changed dramatically. New and different voices articulated artlessly the anger of an intolerant age which clamoured for an expression that was appropriately raw and direct, harsh and unforgiving. Between 1988 and 1991 the main target of this anger was Prime Minister A.N.R Robinson.

Professor Gordon Rohlehr's excellent article, "Apocalypso and the Soca Fires of 1990", which analyses the scapegoating of Robinson, examines the process by which the society ignited its anger against the leader it had chosen in fair and free elections open to all. Rohlehr observes that the process of seeking a sacrificial victim originated in the collective need for someone to suffer publicly for the horror of colonialism and the failures of independence. History was too abstract, the descendants of the white colonists too untouchable and Williams too long dead to be flogged, but Robinson was well within reach. His first 'budget of sacrifices' was but the first in a series of austerity measures which angered the masses, his rigid authoritarianism annoyed his confederates, his expulsion of undisciplined ULF populists alienated the indo-Trinidadian voters and his obsession with demolishing the Williams godhead antagonised the Afro-Trinidadian voters. Different groups cultivated private grievances, some manufactured, others magnified, and the aggregate fury of the real and the perceived fell with triple vengeance on the once putative saviour. Calypsonians featured prominently in the anti-Robinson blitz.

Cro Cro, Sugar Aloes and Watchman lead the main assault and others launched flank attacks or sniped from cover. Stalin "We Can Make It If We Try" ( 1988) and Shorty "Righteousness Exalts a Nation" ( 1989) essayed defences but the general tendency was to flay Robinson and the NAR. To their credit few of the protest singers of the 1962-87 period joined in this practice and when they did voice dissent their song never degenerated to the level of the prevailing anti Art, Chalkdust "Chaffeur Wanted" ( 1989) and Stalin "Nah Ease Up" ( 1990) represented the old style, the style that had become passe since 1988.

-238-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Political Calypso: True Opposition in Trinidad and Tobago, 1962-1987
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • List of Illustrations viii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgements xiv
  • List of Abbreviations xv
  • 1 - The Calypso and Politics 1956-1962 1
  • 2 - The Model Nation 1963-1965 20
  • 3 - God Bless Our Nation 1966-1970 37
  • 4 - The Roaring Seventies 1971-1975 69
  • 5 - "I, Eric Eustace Williams" 1976-1981 121
  • 6 - "The Sinking Ship" 1982-1986 163
  • 7 - Happy Anniversary: the 25th Anniversary of Independence Calypso Monarch Competition 195
  • 8 - Ars Poetica 208
  • Conclusion 236
  • Afterword 238
  • Notes 240
  • Appendixes 257
  • Bibliography 269
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 280

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.